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Watchman Fellowship's 1998-99 Index of Cults and Religions

By the Staff of Watchman Fellowship, Inc.


How To Use This Index

Begin your search by clicking on the highlighted letter below that is the first letter of the term for which you are searching (or, if your browser will do so, perform a word search for the term). If the term is listed, it will be followed by a brief definition. Most of these definitions contain highlighted words that are linked to the definitions for those words; clicking on the highlighted word will take you directly to that definition.


Some Definitions

By using the terms "cult," "occult," and "New Age," these minitries promote doctrine or practices which are outside the realm of Christianity. Cults refer to aberrant beliefs on central doctrines of the faith (God, Jesus, and salvation) cause them to be labels as such.
The word "occult" in this publication is used to describe any attempt to gain supernatural power or knowledge apart from the God of the Bible. Generally it refers to witchcraft, satanism, neo-paganism, or various forms of Psychic discernment (astrology, seances, palm reading, etc.).
New Age is a recent and developing belief system in North America encompassing thousands of autonomous (and sometime contradictory) beliefs, organizations, and events. Generally the New Age borrows its theology from pantheistic Eastern religions and its practices from 19th century Western occultism. The term "New Age" is used herein as an umbrella term to describe organizations which seem to exhibit one or more of the following beliefs: (1) All is one, all reality is part of the whole; (2) Everything is God and God is everything; (3) Man is God or a part of God; (4) Man never dies, but continues to live through reincarnation; (5) Man can create his own reality and/or values through transformed consciousness or altered states of consciousness.



3H0 See "Healthy, Happy, and Holy".

Aaronic Order, Marice Glendenning Murray, UT: Incorporated in 1942 by Glendenning who was excommunicated by the LDS Church after receiving and publishing revelations later known as Levitical Writings. Mormon splinter group. See "Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints".

Abaddon: (The Destroyer or Greek: Appollyon) A demon described in the Bible as "the angel of the bottomless pit." (Revelation 9:11).

Abbey of Thelema Old Greenwich, CT: Esoteric magic, teachings of Aleister Crowley. See Crowley, Aleister.

Academy For Guided Imagery, Martin L. Rossman & David E. Bresler Mill Valley, CA: Healing by Altered States of Consciousness, imagery training, hypnosis and Magic.

Academy of Religion and Psychical Research Evanston, IL: Organization founded in 1956 to explore psychic occurrences and meta-physical experiences while evaluating the growing interest in occult phenomena in Christian churches. See "Spiritual Frontiers Fellowship", "Spiritualism", "Occult".

Acupressure: See "Acupuncture."

Acupuncture: Chinese system of healing, using needles or hand pressure (acupressure) to balance the yin and yang energies in the body by opening blocked meridians (apexes in the pathways). Once the Chakras (key points or intersections) are open, the energy [chi] can then flow through the body bringing all things into harmony. While some limited physical effects (mostly anesthetic) can be attributed to this practice, these effects have scientific, physiological explanations totally unrelated to Taoist theories. See "Holistic Health." Profile available.

Adams, Dennis Mt. Shasta, CA: New Age, man is God.

Adelphi Organization Dallas, TX: New Age teachings on Atlantis, Karma, seven planes of existence. See "Stelle Group."

Adeptco, Chuck McDonald Omaha, NE: Yoga, Crystals, Reincarnation, Karma and Qabalah teachings.

Advanced Organization of Los Angeles (AOLA): Promotes Scientology philosophy.

Advanced Systems, Inc: See "Zen Master Rama".

Adventism/Adventist: See "Second Adventist Movement."

AEgis at the Abode of the Message, Pir Vilayat Inayat Khan New Lebanon, NY: Sufism, Alchemy, Dowsing, Meditation to lead to "inner attunement," Native American sweat lodge.

Aetherius Society, Sir George King: Clairvoyant powers, Karma, Reincarnation, psychometry, Great White Brotherhood and ascended masters, UFOs, Alchemy, Occult secrets of Jesus, Mantras.

Agasha Temple of Wisdom, Inc., William Eisen Los Angeles, CA: Universal consciousness of god, Reincarnation, Occult, Pyramidology, ascended masters.

Agon Buddhism: Buddhism sect. Uses the Agon Sutras as scriptures.

Agyeman, Jaramogi Abebe See "Pan African Orthodox Christian Church".

Ahabah Asah Prophetic Ministries: See “Gatekeepers.”

Ahmadiyya Movement: Islamic organization.

AION: Magic, runes, Goddess worship.

Akashic Records: Theosophical term designating an alleged library that exists on the astral plane containing all the thoughts, actions and events of mankind. Mystics, through Altered States of Consciousness, tune into this library for information.

Alamo Christian Foundation: Tony Alamo, leader of this group, has been imprisoned by authorities for alleged illegal activities. Teaches traditional Christianity is dead. Former followers have reported deplorable living conditions, mind control and slave labor. Operates Music Square Church in TN, Holiness Tabernacle in Dyer, AR, and End Times Book is the publishing arm.

Alamo, Tony: See "Alamo Christian Foundation."

Alan Shawn Feinstein Association Cranston, RI: UFO contactee.

Alchemy: In its original, literal meaning, theories and experiments involving the transmutation (dissolving and combining) of base metals to form gold though chemical and/or supernatural processes. Today, it caries the meaning of a mystical transformation in New Age consciousness through various mystical techniques.

Aletheia Psycho-Physical Foundation, Jack Schwarz Ashland, OR: New Age seminars on the inner-self, paraconsciousness, Meditation and Visualization.

All Souls Unitarian Church, John Wolf Tulsa, OK: See "Unitarian-Universalist" for similar theological perspective.

All Ways Free Madison, WI: New Age periodical.

Allah: See "Islam."

Allegro, John: See "The Sacred Mushroom and the Cross."

Alphabiotic New Life Center Dallas, TX: New Age seminars on one's divine being, Ramtha, Yoga and Channeling.

Alphasonic International Los Angeles, CA: Company specializing in subliminal tapes.

Altered States of Consciousness: Term meaning trances entered through hypnosis, Meditation, drugs (including hallucinogenics), guided imagery, etc. State of being in which one allows the subconscious to take control and guide. May heighten one's vulnerability to suggestion or susceptibility to deception.

Alternative Medicine: See "Holistic Health."

Amalgamated Flying Saucer Clubs of America: See "Mon-Ka Retreat..."

Ambassador University Big Sandy, TX: Now defunct Liberal arts and religious institution founded by Herbert Armstrong. See "Armstrongism."

Ambassadors For Christ Tustin, CA: See "Watchtower Bible and Tract Society" for similar theological perspective.

Ameba San Francisco, CA: Paganism, promotes the teachings of Aleister Crowley, Celtic rituals.

American Babaji Yoga Sangam New York, NY: Hindu philosophy, Yoga.

American Fellowship Services: Splinter group of the Way. See "The Way International."

American Foundation for the Science of Creative Intelligence: A branch of TM. See "Transcendental Meditation."

American Gnostic Church, Daeva Ares Animo: Paganism, Qabalah rituals, Egyptian Magic, Satanic rituals of Anton LeVey, Gnostic Mass.

American Imagery Institute Milwaukee, WI: New Age teachings on Visualization, Astral Projection.

American Leadership College, Inc. Osceola, IA: New Age/Occult teachings on trance healings, mediumship, self-realization dreams.

American Society for Psychical Research, Simon Newcomb New York, NY: ESP, out-of-body experiences, mediums, parapsychology, psychokinesis.

American Study Group UT: Defunct Mormon sect that used the Book of Mormon and the teachings of Mormon leaders to speculate on end-time events and the end of the world.

American Temple, Michael Whitney Portland, OR: A “fourth wave” esoteric and mystical order led by “Patriarch” Michael Whitney reviving the doctrines of the now defunct Holy Order of MANS. See “Holy Order of MANS.”

American West Publishers Tehachapi, CA: UFO, cosmic laws of balance. Publishes the Phoenix Journal.

American Zen Center: Zen Buddhism, shamanism, Sufism.

AMOM: See “Ancient Mystic Order of Malchizedek.”

AMOOKOS: Occult, Magic, some Hinduism, man is already a master.

Ananda Marga Denver, CO: Hindu philosophy and deities, teaches Meditation and Yoga.

Anchor of Golden Light, Dorothy and Henry Leon Grants Pass, OR: UFO's, ascended masters, Cabalah mysticism, Alchemy, numerology. Publishes the Anchor of Golden Light newsletter.

Ancient Mystic Order of Malchizedek, Malachi Z. York (AMOM, Nuwaubians, the Nubian Nation of Moors, Right Knowledge) A UFO group whose leader, (a.k.a. Dwight York) claims to be form the 19th galaxy called Illyuwn. A 1993 FBI report has surfaced calling the group a “front for a wide range of criminal activity, including arson, welfare fraud and extortion.” York group has also operated under other names and organizations including Nubian Islaamic [sic] Hebrew Mission and the Ansaaru Allah Community, (an Islamic sect with doctrines similar to Nation of Islam), and the Original Tents of Kedar.

Ancient Wisdom Connection N. Myrtle Beach, SC: New Age Channeling, numerology and belief in "Lord Sananda," who is an incarnation of Jesus.

Angels: Supernatural, non-human beings created by God. Angels worship God and serce as His messengers. The angels who rebelled against God are called demons. See "Demons," "Satan".

Anglo-Israelism: See "British Israelism."

Animal Magnetism: See "Mesmerism".

Animism: The idea that all things in the universe are inherently invested with a life force, soul or mind. This belief is an important component of many primitive religions, the Occult, and Spiritism.

Annihilationism: Taught by most adventist groups, including the Jehovah's Witnesses, this doctrine denies the conscious, eternal punishment of the lost. Instead, humans who do not receive eternal life will be destroyed and cease to exist.

Anointed Class: See "Little Flock."

Answers Research and Education, Bud Cocherell San Jose, CA: Man's destiny is to become a God, keep Old Testament festivals, sacred name.

Anthoposophic Society, Rudolf Steiner Hudson, NY: Similar to the Chicago organization (below) possibly affiliated.

Anthroposophical Society, Rudolf Steiner Chicago, IL: Occult, teachings on Karma, Meditation, Atlantis and Reincarnation.

Applewhite, Marshall: See "Heaven's Gate."

Applied Kinesiology: New Age diagnostic technique sometimes called "muscle testing." Often patients hold health care products (vitamins, herbs, etc) in their hand while the practitioner pulls or "tests" the reciprocal strength in the finger, arm, etc. to determine the effectiveness or dosage of the remedy. See "Holistic Health."

Apostolic Overcoming Holiness of God, Inc. Birmingham, AL: Part of the apostolic family of theology, stress the oneness of God while accepting the Triune Being of the Godhead. Salvation includes baptism, tarrying to receive the Holy Spirit, and holiness. Publishes The People's Mouthpiece magazine.

Apostolic Overcoming Holy Church of God, Inc. Birmingham, AL: Part of the apostolic family of theology, teaches modalism as its cardinal tenant. Publishes The People's Mouthpiece magazine.

Aquarian Academy, Robert E. Birdsong Eureka, CA: Jesus only an avatar of the Cosmic Christ, Great White Brotherhood of Light, Man's purpose is to reach the transcendental plane, release from the wheel of fate, astral travel, Meditation, cosmic truths.

Aquarian Age Teaching, Ruby Focus Sedona, AZ: Discover the God within, the Father-Mother god, Atlantis, Christ-consciousness.

Aquarian Church of Universal Service, Paul Shockley Portland, OR: Teaches cosmic awareness but with no specific doctrine. Similar to Unitarian-Universalist.

Aquarian Educational Group, Torkom Saraydarian Sedona, AZ: astrology, moon festivals, use the Bhagavad-Gita, Jesus only an avatar. Publishes the Fiery Synthesis magazine.

Aquarian Foundation, Keith Milton Rhinehart Seattle, WA: Universalist, Yoga, Spiritism, theosophical philosophy.

Aquarian Gospel: Book written by Levi H. Dowling, a New Age, apocryphal story supposedly based on the Akashic Records.

Aquarian Minyan Berkeley, CA: Jewish group, Yoga, mysticism.

Aquarian Perspectives Inter Planetary Mission Montgomery, AL: Part of the UFO theological family, receives messages from Futron and the Rainbow Star Legionnaires.

Aquarian Tabernacle Church Index, WA: Paganism, worship of Mother Earth, Goddess worship, sun and moon festival, Magic. Publishes the Panegyria newsletter.

Ar nDraiocht Fein, P.E.I. Bonewits Nyack, NY: Neo-Paganism, druidism, polytheistic nature worship. Publishes News from the Mother Grove newsletter.

Arcana Workshop Manhattan Beach, CA: Meditation, Great Invocation, moon festivals. Based on the teachings of Alice Bailey. Publishes the Thoughtline newsletter. See "Arcane School."

Arcane School, Alice Bailey: Occult, Esoteric teachings, connected with Lucis Trust, formerly Lucifer Trust. Similar to Theosophy.

Arete Truth Center, Paul Lachlan Peck Las Vegas, NV: New Age, metaphysics, teaches balancing the body, mind and spirit.

Arguelles, Jose:See "Harmonic Convergence."

Arizona Light Phoenix, AZ: New Age periodical.

Arizona Metaphysical Society, Frank Alper Phoenix, AZ: New Age seminars on Rebirthing, Astral Projection, Channeling, Karma, Reincarnation and Crystals.

Arizona Network News Scottsdale, AZ: New Age periodical.

Arm of the Lord Warren, OH: Teaches that it is a satanic idea to invite Jesus into "one's life."

Armstrong, Garner Ted: Son of Herbert W. Armstrong (founder of the Worldwide Church of God). Garner Ted formed his own rival, splinter group. See "Church of God, International."

Armstrong, Herbert W.: Developed an eclectic doctrinal system known as Armstrongism and founded the Worldwide Church of God (WCG) which rejected virtually all of his unique beliefs in the decade following his death in 1986. Splinter groups of the Worldwide Church of God, however, continue to use various forms of Armstrong's teachings. See "Armstrongism," "Worldwide Church of God."

Armstrongism: The doctrines and theories of Herbert W. Armstrong (1892-1986) who founded the Worldwide Church of God (WCG). These beliefs include a rejection of the essential doctrines of evangelical Christianity such as the doctrine of the Trinity, the full deity of Jesus and the personality of the Holy Spirit. Armstrong taught British Israelism and believed that worthy humans could eventually "become God as God is God." Salvation was predicated upon observing the Sabbath laws each Saturday, tithing (20-30%), keeping the Old Testament feast days and dietary laws. Under the leadership of Armstrong's successors, Joseph W. Tkach and his son Joe Tkach, the Worldwide Church of God has undergone a radical doctrinal transformation. Scores of WCG splinter groups, such as the Global Church of God and the United Church of God, continue to teach various forms of Armstrongism. See "Salvation by Works," "Salvation by Grace," "Gospel," "Sabbatarianism," "British Israelism," "Worldwide Church of God."

Armageddon Time Ark Base Operation, O.T. Nodrog Weslaco, TX: Part of the UFO family, channels messages from outer dimensional forces.

Aromatherapy:The belief that certain diseases or illnesses can be healed by inhaling scented steam or fragrances. See "Holistic Health."

Aromatherapy Seminars Los Angeles, CA: Holistic Healing therapy, oils healing the psyche. See "Aromatherapy."

Arunachala Ashram, Bhagavan Sri Ramana: Hindu philosophy, also called Maharshi Center, Inc.

As It Is: See "Process Church of the Final Judgement."

Asatru Free Assembly Denair, CA: Paganism, worship Odin as Father-god, Frigga as Mother-god and Nerthus as Mother-Earth. Publishes The Runestone newsletter.

Ascended Masters: (Sometimes called the "Great White Brotherhood") Occult, New Age. Alleged teachers or masters who live on an astral plane as non-physical entities beyond time and space. They can supposedly communicate spiritual truths to humans through Channeling or other Occult techniques. Membership includes Jesus, Buddha, St. Germain, Ramtha, Mafu, and/or others.

Ascended Master Teaching Foundation Mt. Shasta, CA: Occult, part of the I AM family of theology, Great White Brotherhood, similar to Theosophy. See "I AM Movement."

Ascended Masters School of Light, Toni Moltzan Carrollton, TX: New Age, Channeling, ascended masters including Christ, universal consciousness.

Ascension Week Enterprises Santa Fe, NM: New Age, Channeling, reaching out to children with New Age programs.

ASCENT Foundation, Larry Jensen Sedona, AZ: New Age enlightenment, similar to Silva Mind Control.

Asheville Meditation Center, Asheville, NC: New Age, achieving man's divine nature, transcendence.

Assemblies of the Called Out Ones of "Yah," Sam Surratt Milan, TX: See "Yahwehism."

Assemblies of Yahweh, Jacob Meyer Bethel, PA: Publishes The Sacred Name Broadcaster magazine. See "Yahwehism."

Assemblies of Yahweh (7th day) Cisco, TX: See "Yahwehism."

Assembly of Scientific Astrologers,George Cardinal LeGrosoplin, MO: Esoteric astrology, horoscope, past lives, Karma and Reincarnation.

Assembly of Yahweh Holt, MI: Founded in 1930, perhaps the oldest of the Sacred Name groups in America. Sabbatarian. Publishes The Faith.

Assembly of YHW Yoshua Pueblo, CO: Sacred Name. See "Yahwehism."

Associated Readers of Tarot International Carbondale, IL: Occult, tarot, Celtic rituals.

Association for Christian Development, Kenneth Westby Auburn, WA: Splinter group of Worldwide Church of God. Publishes the ACD Newsletter. See "Armstrongism."

Association for Past-Life Research and Therapies, Inc. Riverside, CA: New Age, Reincarnation and astrology.

Association for Research and Enlightenment, Edgar Cayce Virginia Beach, VA: Pantheism, trance medium, life readings, Reincarnation.

Association for the Understanding of Man Austin, TX: New Age, Channeling, psychic reading, Altered States of Consciousness.

Association Sananda & Sanat Kumara, Inc. Mt. Shasta, CA: New Age, ChannelingChrist-consciousness teachings.

Astara, Robert & Evelyn Chaney: New Age, Spiritism, Yoga. Publishes Voice of Astara.

Astral Projection: New Age/Occult doctrine teaching methods whereby one's soul can depart the body, travel to various parts of the universe, then re-enter the body. Usually the soul and body are said to be connected at all times by a "cord." Also called "out of body experiences" (OBE).

Astral Travel: See "Astral Projection."

Astro Computing Services San Diego, CA: Astrology.

Astrology: An ancient fatalistic system of divination using the position of the planets, moon and sun in the twelve Zodiac positions at the moment of one's birth to supernaturally gain hidden knowledge. See "Divination." Profile available.

Astrology and Psychic News N. Hollywood, CA: New Age periodical.

Atheism: The belief that there is no God.

Atlantic Pagan Council: Association of East Coast pagan covens, Magic, moon festivals, paganism. Publishes the Atlantic Pagan Council Amateur Publishers' Association newsletter.

Atlantis: A mythical island/continent said to have sunk beneath the ocean. Purported to have been a highly advanced civilization.

Atman: A term used in Hinduism referring to the eternal or real self and sometimes refering to universal life principle.

At-one-ment: Term used by several Mind Science or New Thought religions (such as Christian Science) referring to the unity of the minds of man and God demonstrated by Christ.

Aum Shinrikyo, Shoko Asahara Tokyo, Japan: Aum (a mantra) Shinri Kyo (Supreme Truth) is the apocalyptic Buddhist sect suspected in the 1995 subway nerve gas murders in Japan. Police raiding cult compounds discovered stockpiles of nerve gas and the basic ingredients of biological warfare. Sect leaders have been charged with abduction and “murder preparation.” Aum leader, Chizuo Matsumoto (now called Shoko Asahara), has predicted the end of the world between 1997 and 2000. The Dalai Lama, the leader of Tibetan Buddhism, has denied Aum claims that Asahara was ever his disciple. The sect has about $29 million in assets and 10,000 disciples in Japan and 30,000 in Russia. The sect has followers in other countries including the U.S. and Australia. Profile available.

Aum Supreme Truth: See "Aum Shinri Kyo."

Aura: A subtle light or energy field said to surround people or objects. Mystics explain that from the color of the aura, a person's emotional and intellectual moods can be determined.

Author Services, Inc.: Promotes Scientology philosophy.

Automatic Writing: Inspired from the spirit world, the writer has no conscious muscular control of their hands or arms. Found in many Occult and New Age groups.

Avanta Network Palo Alto, CA: New Age, works by Virginia Satir promoted, positive and negative energies.

Avatar Flagstaff, AZ: New Age seminars similar to est and Lifespring, enables participant to have conscious shift of beliefs.

Awake!: See "Watchtower Bible and Tract Society."

Awareness Research Foundation, Inc. North Miami, FL: Astrology, Atlantis, UFO's, ESP and Lord Sananda.

Ayurvedic Lifestyle Center, Pearl Miller Reno, NV: Eastern mysticism, Meditation, homeopathic medicine.

Ayurvedic Medicine: Promoted by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi and Deepak Chopra. Teaches the balancing of vibrational centers for health through diet, exercise, herbs, and purification processes.


Baba, Sai: Indian guru, Hinduism, Meditation, KundaliniYoga.

The Bahá'í Faith, Bahá'u'lláh: A sect of Islam evolving into a major independent religion with approximately five million believers worldwide. Buddha, Jesus, Muhammad, Bahá'u'lláh and others formed a succession of divine messengers. A 19th century Persian teacher, the Báb, (or Gate) predicted Bahá‘u’lláh’s coming. The movement goals include a new global order of sexual equality, a one-world economic system to eliminate poverty, and a one-world religion.
Profile available.

Bailey, Alice: See "Arcane School." Profile available.

Baptism for the Dead: Practice of the LDS Church whereby living members are baptized by proxy for people who have died without knowing the LDS Gospel. If the dead accept the LDS gospel while in Spirit Prison, they can potentially have access to full salvation or godhood (exaltation). This ceremony is performed only in an LDS Temple. See "Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints," "Baptismal Regeneration."

Baptismal Regeneration: The belief that salvation or eternal life is conditioned upon water baptism. Most groups teaching this doctrine also add that proper mode (immersion or sprinkling) and/or proper minister (one authorized by the organization) is necessary. This has been historically seen as teaching a form of works salvation, which was repudiated by the Reformation and is rejected today by fundamental and evangelical Christianity (Ephesians 2:8-10). See "Salvation by Works," "Salvation by Grace," "Gospel."

Bear Tribe Medicine Society Spokane, WA: Native American spirituality, Mother Earth, medicine wheel, moon ceremonies.

Believers International Tucson, AZ: Compiling a compendium of all of William Branham’s teachings. Publishes Believer's News. See “Branhamism.”

Bernard, David: A well-known "Jesus Only" writer and speaker. See "Oneness Pentecostal".

Besant, Annie: Successor to Madame Blavatsky who proclaimed Krishnamurti as the Messiah. (Krishnamurti later renounced that role). See "Theosophy."

Bet Hashem - The House of YHWH New Haven, IN: Sacred Name, man is the offspring of light, conversion is the union with the light.

Beth El Shaddai, Dick Amos Plano, TX: Dual Covenant theology, denies Jesus is God.

Beth HaShem, Jacob Hawkins Odessa, TX: Sacred name, sabbatarian, keeps Old Testament feasts and laws for salvation. Publishes The Prophetic Watchman newsletter.

Bhagavad-Gita: Meaning "Song of the Lord," this scripture is used by Hindus and Hare Krishnas.

Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh: Though this Indian guru is deceased, many followers still practice his unique form of Hindu philosophy and sexual Yoga system to gain enlightenment.

Bhakti Yoga: Type of Yoga or spiritual exercise involving devotion to a guru. See "Yoga."

Bible: Considered scripture by Christianity. Consists of the Jewish scriptures (Old Testament) and the Christian scriptures (New Testament).

Bible Believers, Inc.: See "Branham, William."

Bible Speaks, The: See "Greater Grace World Outreach."

Bible Students: Various semiautonomous groups which broke off of the Watchtower Bible and Tract Society after Joseph Rutherford took control of the organization. Reprints the early writings of Watchtower founder Charles Taze Russell including Divine Plan of the Ages. Groups across the country go under various names (i.e., Fort Worth Bible Students or Chicago Bible Students, etc.). See “Watchtower Bible and Tract Society."

Bible Studies Fellowship San Diego, CA: Watchtower Bible and Tract Society break-off group. [Note: This group is not affiliated with Bible Study Fellowship, International (BSF) headquartered in San Antonio, TX.]

Bible Talks: Home and campus group studies sponsored by the International Church of Christ. See "Boston Church of Christ."

Bible Way Church of Our Lord Jesus Christ: Denies the doctrine of the Trinity by teaching "Jesus Only". See "Oneness Pentecostal," "Modalism," "Salvation by Works".

Bible Way Publications Ft. Lauderdale, FL: Break-off group from Watchtower Bible and Tract Society.

Biblical Church of God Santa Cruz, CA: Worldwide Church of God splinter group. See "Armstrongism."

Biblical Research Centers: Regional centers for The Way. See "The Way International."

Bioenergy: New Age practice of healing. Balances the life-energy by opening blocked meridians.

BioEnergetic Synchronization Techniques: New Age method using body's life force to heal itself.

Biofeedback: The use of EEG (electroencephalographic) feeback instruments to monitor brain waves and skin resistance with the goal of modification of brain waves. Participants can learn to control heart rates or generate brain wave activity (alpha, beta, and delta) at will to induce altered states of consciousness. Enhance the capacity for relaxation and/or induce meditative states and physiological control similar to that of yogis and Zen masters. See "Altered States of Consciousness".

Biointegration, Ross Algelo Dallas, TX: New Age, body alignment, Yoga, Reflexology, Rebirthing.

Bio-Magnetics: New Age, the realigning of magnetic fields allegedly surrounding the body.

BioPsciences Institute Minneapolis, MN: Astrology.

Black Mass: An Occult ceremony usually performed by Satanists often involving the desecration of Christian symbols or a ritual reversal of the Roman Catholic mass. Sometimes blood and raw flesh (human or animal) are consumed and ritual sex is performed.

Black Moon Publishing Cincinnati, OH: Occult book publisher.

Black Muslim: See "Nation of Islam."

Black Christian Nationalist Movement: See "Pan African Orthodox Christian Church".

Blavatsky, Helena Petrovna: See "Theosophy."

Blue Lotus Wilmot, WI: New Age periodical.

Blue Mountain Center of Meditation, Eknath Easwaran Petaluma, CA: Hindu philosophy, Meditation, use the Bhagavad-Gita.

Blue Rose Ministry, Robert Short Joshua Tree, CA: UFO's, Messages from the space brothers, Channeling. Publishes the Solar Space-Letter.

Blue Star, Mary Thunder West Point, TX: New Age, sweat lodge, Channeling, Spiritual University.

B'nai Noah: Plural Covenant, teaches Jesus is not the Savior of the Jews, Gentiles are to keep the Seven Laws of Noah and study the Torah (or Old Testament) with Jewish Rabbis

Body, Mind and Soul Houston, TX: New Age periodical.

Body, Mind and Spirit Providence, RI: New Age magazine.

Book of Changes: See "I Ching."

Book of Mormon: One of the scriptures or "Standard Works" of Mormonism. See "Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints" and "Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints."

Bookmark Santa Clarita, CA: Christian Science splinter group.

Borderland Science Research Foundation Garberville, CA: Alchemy, Dowsing, UFO's, astrology.

Born Again: Biblical term used to describe regeneration (John 3: 3-7). The term has been given a wide range of meanings. Some New Age followers teach that the term was Christ's reference to Reincarnation or Rebirthing. Churches that lean towards baptismal regeneration tend to interpret the phrase to be a reference to water baptism. Evangelical and fundamental Christians believe that Jesus was speaking of a spiritual event effected by God through the Holy Spirit to restore a sinful, fallen human to right relationship with Him. See "Gospel."

Boston Church of Christ: See “International Churches of Christ.”

Bradshaw, John: Prominent New Age teacher on PBS and author of Healing the Inner Child.

Brahma: The creator and first member of the triad of Hindu demigods including Shiva and Vishnu. See "Hinduism."

Brainwashing: Force indoctrination which uses various techniques that may cause a subject to abandon basic political, social or religious ideas or beliefs and replace those ideals with a contrasting belief system.  A translation of a Chinese word xinao, “brainwashing” became a popular term to describe the phenomena of radical change in behavior and core beliefs, which took place in some prisoners of war held in Chinese camps in the mid-twentieth century. In a more general since, the word is sometimes used to describe any form of persuasion perceived to be unethical that results in a radical and negative change in personality. See “Lifton, Robert,” “Mind Control.”

Branch Davidians, Benjamin Roden: Splinter group of the Seventh Day Adventist Church. David Koresh (A.K.A. Vernon Howell) was leader from 1984 to 1993. He and many of his most devout followers were killed when their headquarters near Waco, TX was destroyed by fire in 1993 during a government raid. Taught knowledge of the Seven Seals of the book of Revelation brought salvation. Many followers still believe Koresh's messianic claims and expect him to soon be resurrected.

Branham Tabernacle: See "Branhamism."

Branham, William: See "Branhamism."

Branhamism, William Branham Jeffersonville, IN: A Jesus Only Pentecostal preacher who claimed he received healing and prophetic powers from an angel. Denied the Trinity doctrine and rejected other pentecostal and traditional Christian churches. See "Modalism," "Serpent Seed." Profile available.

British Israelism: (Anglo-Israelism/Israelitism) The doctrine that the true identity of modern Israel (or the "ten lost tribes") is Britian and (sometimes) the British colonies (America). The monarchs of England sit on the throne of David. In more extreme forms, Israel is identified with a particular race - usually white Anglo-Saxon, Germanic, and Scandinavian people. Opposing versions of doctrine teach that Blacks are God's Chosen People, Israel. See "Identity Movement."

Brotherhood and Order of the Pleroma, Richard Duc de Palatine Sherman Oaks, CA: Gnostic philosophy, God and man are the same being.

Brotherhood of Eternal Truth New Albany, IN: Spiritualist, astrology, Atlantis, Channeling, Magic, past life regression. Also known as Center of Light and Life.

Brotherhood of SeTh Ellsworth, ME: Paganism, homosexual or homophilic Magic, teachings of Aleister Crowley.

Brotherhood of the Followers of the Present Jesus, Ann and Peter Meyer San Diego, CA: Alchemy, Christ-consciousness in each person, Channeling and clairvoyance.

Brotherhood of the White Temple, Inc., M. Doreal Castle Rock, CO: New Age/Occult metaphysical teachings, soul illumination, Three planes of existence.

Buddha: Siddhartha Gautama Buddha ("enlightened one") was born about 560 B.C. in northeastern India and, according to legend, received spiritual enlightenment through Meditation. During his lifetime, his spiritual insights and teachings became a major alternative to Hinduism throughout India. Diverse versions of his teachings can be found worldwide today. See "Buddhism."

Buddha's Universal Church San Francisco, CA: Similar Buddhism in theology.

Buddhism: World religion based on the spiritual teachings of Siddhartha Gautama Buddha. There are a number of versions or sects of Buddhism generally teaching paths to Nirvana (enlightenment or bliss) though the four noble truths (recognizing existence and source of suffering) and the eightfold path (correct understanding, behavior and Meditation). Some variations of Buddhism include traditional Theravada schools of India, Mahayana Buddhism which became very popular in China and Japan, and Tibetan Buddhism (Lamaism) in Tibet. Two more recent forms which have had great influence in America are Zen and Nichiren Shoshu Buddhism. See "Buddha," "Zen Buddhism," "Nichiren Shoshu of America," "Tibetan Buddhism."

Builders, Norman Paulsen Oasis, NV: New Age, Christ-consciousness, Meditation, Father-Mother God, Enlightenment.

Builders of the Adytum, Ltd., Paul Foster Case Los Angeles, CA: Occult, Qabalah, Tarot, Spiritual Alchemy, Esoteric Astrology.

Buzzworm: New Age/environmental periodical.


C.O.B.U.: See "Church of Bible Understanding".

Cabalah: See "Kabbalah."

Caelum Moor Arlington, TX: Private park (now closed) containing menhirs (large upright stones) similar to those found at Stonehenge. Newspaper reports claim trespassers have used the site for pagan ceremonies. See "Stonehenge."

Campbell, Joseph: Best known for his book and PBS series with Bill Moyer, The Power of Myth, that teaches all religions are based on common mythological themes, best interpreted through a New Age world view.

CAN: See “Cult Awareness Network.”

Canfield, Jack: New Age education author. Very influential in the public school arena.

Cantillation Research Foundation, John Diamond Valley Cottage, NY: New Age, pantheism, All is God, All is Mother.

CARP: See "Collegiate Association for the Research of Principles."

Castaneda, Carlos: New Age author of The Teachings of Don Juan series. He helped popularize Native American shamanism, the hallucinogenic peyote, and New Age Occultism.

Castle Rising Denver, CO: Paganism, Magic, psychic impressions, moon festivals, Crystals. Publishes the Castle Rising newsletter.

Catholicism: See "Roman Catholicism."

CAUSA: Organization of Rev. Sun Myung Moon. See "Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity."

Cayce, Edgar: See "Association For Research and Enlightenment."

Celestine Prophecy, The: A best-selling New Age book by James Redfield that teaches enlightenment through the fictional "Nine Insights" contained in secret manuscripts written by Maya natives in the jungles of Peru. See "Redfield, James."

Center for Action and Contemplation Albuquerque, NM: Yoga, Enneagram workshops.

Center for Advanced Communication and Training Carrollton, TX: New Age, hypnosis, Neuro-Linguistic Programming.

Center for Alternate Realities Durango, CO: Metaphysics, Crystals, shamanism, runes, Tarot Cards, guided Meditation, palm reading.

Center for Personal and Planetary Empowerment Austin, TX: New Age, Meditation, Alchemy.

Center For Spiritual Awareness, Roy Eugene Davis Lakemont, GA: New Age, Enlightenment, man's higher self, cosmic-consciousness.

Center for Wisdom Spirituality Paradise, PA: Universalism. Publishes the Interconnections newsletter.

Center for World Networking Soguel, CA: UFO, psychic, Yoga, Universal Energy.

Center of the Light Great Barrington, MA: New Age, Native American religions, Reflexology. Publishes The Light Journal.

Centers Network, The: See "est."

Centric Houston, TX: New Age periodical.

Cesar San Antonio, TX: Occult spells, hexes, curses, voodoo, Witchcraft. See also "Papa Jim."

Chakras: New Age, said to be centers for cosmic energy that are aligned to allow the Kundalini energy to proceed from the base of the spine to the top of the forehead.

Champaign-Urbana Church of Christ: Similar to Boston Church of Christ theology.

Channeling: The Occult practice of Spiritualism given a new name in the New Age _ Channeling or trance channeling. Spirit beings, "ascended masters," deceased humans, or animal spirits allegedly communicate important messages by temporarily entering the body and controlling the voice of a host (channel or medium). Most channelers give the same basic message, man is God. Profile available.

Chapel of Prayer, Eleanor Button Houston, TX: Psychic readings, Channeling, Crystals, astrology, self-healing Meditation.

Cheetham, John: See "Great Lakes Society for Biblical Research."

Chen, Hon-ming: See “Chen Tao.”

Chen Tao, Hon-ming Chen: (The Right Way, God’s Salvation Church, God Saves the Earth Flying Saucer Foundation) Apocalyptic Taiwanese UFO group that drew international media attention when they predicted that God would descend to their Garland, TX headquarters in a flying saucer on March 31, 1998. Publishes Practical Evidence and Study of the World of God and Buddha, God’s Descending in Clouds (Flying Saucers) on Earth to Save People. Additional articles and press releases available. Profile available.

Chi: Invisible energy or force is alleged to make up the universe and flow through all living things via meridians or Chakras. See "Taoism," "Yin and Yang," "Acupuncture."

Chicago Bible Students Chicago, IL: Largest and best-known of the independent “Bible student” groups in the US which broke off of the Watchtower Bible and Tract Society after Joseph Rutherford took control of the organization. Reprints the early writings of Watchtower founder Charles Taze Russell including Divine Plan of the Ages. See “Bible Students,” “Watchtower Bible and Tract Society.”

Children of God: See "The Family(Children of God)".

Chinmaya International Foundation, Swami Chinmayananda Piercy, CA: Eastern mysticism, Yoga, Meditation. Publishes the MU News.

Chinmoy, Sri: Hindu philosophy, Meditation.

Chinook Learning Center, Fritz and Vivienne Hull Clinton, WA: Native American Earth-Spirit philosophy, shamanistic studies, Meditation, called one of the most important New Age centers.

Chiromancy: See "Palm Reading."

A Choice Experience, Jerry Stocking Chetek, WI: New Age, Neuro-Linguistic Programming, other-than-consciousness techniques.

Choosing Light, Inc. Mill Valley, CA: New Age, Meditation, telepathic communication from Higher Dimension Guides and teachers.

Chopra, Deepak: Noted  New Age and health author and lecturer. Profile available.

Christ: Based on the Greek meaning "anointed one" equivalent to the Hebrew "messiah." Generally used of one who has been anointed with oil and/or set apart for a specific mission. Specifically used to speak of the promised messiah/savior of Israel and the world. Christians believe this to be Jesus of Nazareth who died to atone for human sin. Other religions believe in a succession of Christ figures through history, sometimes including Jesus, who were great teachers. New Age groups sometimes understand the term "Christ" as a reference to the pantheistic deity found in all humanity. Thus, Jesus was conscious of his deity or "Christ" and others can have this same "Christ consciousness" by realizing that they, too, are divine beings. Other religious leaders have historically claimed to hold the office or ministry of Christ including Rev. Sun Myung Moon. Biblical warnings are given for "false Christs" (Mark 13:22). Scripture also speaks of an antiChrist and antiChrists which stand against and/or instead of the true Christ (1 John 2:18). See "Jesus."

Christ Cathedral for Divine Abundance, Alexius Bassey London: Universalism, Divine Consciousness.

Christ-Consciousness: The New Age, pantheistic belief that we can be aware of the "Christ," or deity, that resides in all of humanity.

Christ Family, Charles McHugh: McHugh, a.k.a. Lightening Amen, claims to be the incarnation of Jesus. Followers dress in robes, no shoes, practice vegetarianism.

Christ Light Community: See "New Age Church of Truth."

Christ the Savior Brotherhood: See “Holy Order of MANS.”

Christadelphians, John Thomas: Teach that Jesus is a created being, Holy Spirit is Power of God and salvation by works. Also reject the ideas of heaven and hell. It has several splinter groups.

Christian Community: Based on teachings of Rudolf Steiner. See "Anthroposophical Society" for theological similarities.

Christian Foundation Canyon County, CA: See "Alamo Christian Foundation."

Christian Millennial Fellowship Hartford, CT: Watchtower Bible and Tract Society splinter group. Publishes The New Creation periodical.

Christian Prayer Center, Mother Martin Washington, D.C.: Native American spirituality and rituals, voodoo.

Christian Renewal Ministry Saratoga, CA: Splinter group of Watchtower Bible and Tract Society.

Christian Rose Cross Church Olympia, WA: Based on Rosicrucian teachings of Max Heindel, Cosmic Christ, Universal religion.

Christian Science: See "First Church of Christ, Scientist."

Christianity, Jesus Christ: Major world religion developed in the first century A.D. based on the belief that Jesus of Nazareth was the promised messiah of Israel. Followers, called Christians, were initially viewed as a sect of Judaism. It quickly developed as a separate religion when the relatively small minority of Jewish followers were supplemented by non-Jewish converts and, through a strong missionary emphasis, Christianity became a diverse worldwide movement. Their scripture is the Bible, which contains the Jewish Scriptures (Old Testament) and the Christian Scriptures (New Testament). Except for Cults, aberrant sects or the liberal fringe, those who claim to be Christians have historically believed the following: There is only one true God eternally revealed in three distinct Persons - the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. That humans are sinners who (without the grace of God received through faith in Christ) are eternally lost. And that Jesus is God in the flesh who died on the cross and rose from the dead as the only and sufficient payment for the sins of humanity. See "Jesus," "Christ," "Gospel," "Born Again," "Fundamental Christianity," "Evangelical Christianity," "Protestantism," "Orthodox Christianity," "Roman Catholicism," "Liberal Christianity," "Salvation by Grace," "Salvation by Works," "Cult."

Christward Ministry Escondido, CA: New Age, guided Meditation, Christ-consciousness.

Chrysalis: Swedenborg Foundation periodical.

Chuang-tzu: See "Taoism."

Church at San Diego, Paul and Patrica Carroll: Current leaders Vincent and Patricia Izacic (A.K.A. Xavier). Shepherding, authoritarian, mind control.

Church For Positive Living, Dean Davis Bedford, TX: Native American spirituality, Yoga, creative Meditation, Visualization.

Church in York, Bernard HaygoodYork, PA: Shepherding, baptismal regeneration.

Church of All Worlds, Otter ZellBerkeley, CA: Occult/Pagan theology. Publishes the Green Egg periodical.

Church of Bible Understanding (C.O.B.U.): A controversial network of churches, headquartered in New York, that historically has been charged with spiritual abuse due to legalism, undue influence, and control mechanisms. See "Spiritual Abuse," "Legalism".

Church of Christ: See "Churches of Christ."

Church of Christ-Consciousness: See "Center of the Light."

Church of Christ Jesus: See "Boston Church of Christ."

Church of Christ, Scientist: See "First Church of Christ, Scientist."

Church of Christ, Temple Lot, Granville Hedrick Independence, MO:First Church of Christ, Scientist."

LDS splinter group.

Church of Christ with the Elijah Message, Otto Fetting Independence, MO: LDS splinter group.

Church of Christ with the Elijah Message Greenwood, MO: 1998 splinter group from Otto Fetting’s group of the same name.

Church of Cosmic Origin, Inc., Hope Troxell June Lake, CA: New Age, Community, Cosmic Christianity, additional scripture includes The Book of Enoch.

Church of Divine Influence: Alignment with the Divine Will of the Wise Movement of the Universe.

Church of Essential Science Scottsdale, AZ: Kabbalah, cosmic laws of Divine spark to achieve salvation, God was All in the beginning.

Church of E Yada di Shi-ite, Mark Probert Mountain View, CA: New Age, Channeling, UFO contactee.

Church of God and True Holiness, Robert Carr Raleigh, NC: Allegedly practice slavery and mind control.

Church of God Evangelistic Association, David J. Smith Richardson, TX: Worldwide Church of God splinter group. Denies Trinity, personality of the Holy Spirit, and the bodily resurrection. Teaches annihilation, salvation by law-keeping, the Saturday Sabbath, and that man can become a member of the God family (Godhead). Publishes Newswatch Magazine and Newswatch radio and television programs. See "Armstrongism."

Church of God, Faith of Abraham Wenatchee, WA: Splinter group of Watchtower Bible and Tract Society, anti-Trinitarian. Publishes Notes For Bible Students newsletter.

Church of God Family Counseling Center, William Miller Dallas, TX: Miller claims to be the savior.

Church of God General Conference Oregon, IL: Anti-Trinitarian, main headquarters for the Church of God, Faith of Abraham.

Church of God, International, Garner Ted Armstrong Tyler, TX: Break-off from Worldwide Church of God. Teaches a form of Armstrongism. Armstrong recently stepped down from his top leadership position amidst allegations of sexual misconduct and litigation. Publishes the International News and Twentieth Century Watch periodicals. See "Armstrongism."

Church of God Philadelphia Era, David Fraser Pasadena, CA: Worldwide Church of God break-off group. Teaches a form of Armstrongism. Publishes the Proclaim Liberty magazine. See "Armstrongism."

Church of God, Seventh Day Caldwell, ID: Observes Sabbath and Feast days, Baptism necessary for salvation. Publishes The Herald of Truth newsletter.

Church of God (Seventh Day) Denver, CO: One of the older sabbatarian churches in America. Publishes Bible Advocate.

Church of God, The Eternal, Raymond C. Cole Eugene, OR: Splinter group from Worldwide Church of God, observes Sabbath and Feast Days. See "Armstrongism."

Church of Hakeem, Hakeem Rasheed Oakland, CA: Teaches how the god within makes people rich.

Church of Illumination Quartertown, PA: New Age, Divine Spark in all humans, gnosticism, similar to Rosicrucian theology.

Church of Israel, Day Gayman Schell City, MO: Radical Christian-Israel Identity. Publishes The Watchman.

Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Joseph Smith Salt Lake City, UT: (Latter-day Saints, LDS, Mormon) Believes God the Father was once a man on another planet who died, was resurrected and became the God of this planet. He is a polygamist begetting billions of spirit children. Two of his children are Jesus and Lucifer. Jesus will one day rule a planet as does His Father. A distinction is made between the Holy Ghost who is a personage of Spirit and the Holy Spirit which is the force of the Father's will. Man is a god in embryo who has the potential to become a God and rule over his own planet as God the Father rules over this Earth. Bible, Book of Mormon, Pearl of Great Price, and Doctrine and Covenants are considered scripture. Publishes Church News and Ensign magazine. Research material available. Profile available.

Church of Jesus Power, E.S. Cooke, Sr. Boulder City, NV: Astral projection via "Jesus Powered Sakraments" (sic) which changes man's electro-magnetic polarity.

Church of Light, Elbert Benjamin Los Angeles, CA: New Age, Associated with the Brotherhood of Light, rejects heaven and hell. Atonement to be found in each person's own path.

Church of Metaphysical Christianity, Russell Flexer Sarasota, FL: New Age, Jesus is ascended master, Creation by Vibrations. Publishes Metaphysical Messenger magazine.

Church of Our Lord Jesus Christ Apostolic Faith: Deinies the doctrine of the Trinity by teaching "Jesus Only". See "Oneness Pentecostal," "Modalism," "Salvation by Works".

Church of Perfect Liberty, Tokuchika Tokuhara Glendale, CA: Zen Buddhism, man is manifestation of god.

Church of Satan, Anton Szandor LaVey San Francisco, CA: Occult, Incantations, Festival days include Spring equinox and Halloween, worship of Satan, author of the Satanic Bible.

Church of Scientology, L. Ron Hubbard: Humans are imprisoned gods, Reincarnation, salvation is releasing of "Engrams" and becoming totally free of past life events, releasing god nature. This is accomplished by a process known as "clearing" accomplished through "auditing." Teachings are also advanced through affiliated business management companies such as Sterling Management Systems, the drug prevention program Narcanon, and in public schools though Way to Happiness. Best known for the best-selling book Dianetics. Publishes several magazines including Advance, High Winds and Source. Also publishes several newspapers and newsletters including The Auditor, Tech News, Scientology Today, International Scientology News, KSW News and the FSM Newsletter. Research material available. Profile available.

Church of Seven Arrows Wheatridge, CO: Native American spirituality, shamanism, paganism. Publishes Thunderbow II newsletter.

Church of the Brigade of Light Charlotte, NC: Divine Mother in everyone, Jesus called the Gentle Brother, Metaphysical philosophy. Publishes the Crystals of Light newsletter.

Church of the Final Judgement: See "Process Church of the Final Judgement."

Church of the Great God, John Ritenbaugh Charlotte, NC: Worldwide Church of God break-off group. Teaches a form of Armstrongism. Publishes the Forerunner newsletter. See "Armstrongism."

Church of the Living Stone Mission for the Coming Days, Bang-ik Ha Seoul Korea: Predicted Jesus would return on October 28, 1992. See "False Prophecy."

Church of the Most High God Marvel, TX: God the Father is male and the Holy Spirit is Female or God the Mother.

Church of the Most High Goddess, Mary Ellen Tracy Los Angeles, CA: Revival of Egyptian religions, temple priestess, salvation through sexual relations.

Church of the Movement of Spiritual Inner Awareness, John-Roger Hinkins Santa Monica, CA: New Age, seminars, Karma, Reincarnation, spirit guide/possession, guided imagery, hypnosis, chanting, Meditation.

Church of the New Birth: See "Foundation Church of Divine Truth."

Church of the New Jerusalem: See "Swedenborg Foundation."

Church of the Plains Indians: Native American spirituality, sweat lodge.

Church of the Tree of Life San Francisco, CA: No doctrine of God, Sin, etc., only doctrine is anything goes within legal limits.

Church of the Trinity, A. Stuart Otto San Marcos, CA: New Age, By Jesus' C.E.R.A. (Crucifixion, Entombment, Resurrection and Ascension) he imparted his Consciousness into the psyche of all.

Church of the White Eagle Lodge, Jean LeFevre Montgomery, TX: Divine or Christ light in each person, Visualization, Yoga, Chakras, astrology. Publishes Newsletter For The Americas.

Church of Universal Love, Linda Foreman El Paso, TX: Similar to I AM Movement, use teachings of St. Germain, Channeling, guided Meditation. Publishes Cosmic Channelling newsletter.

Church of Unlimited Devotion: Worship Jerry Garcia of the rock-and-roll band, "The Greatful Dead". They believe Garcia's guitar is a channel for God.

Church of Y Tylwyth Teg Smyrna, GA: Pagan, Occult philosophy.

Church Universal and Triumphant, Mark Prophet (CUT) Corwin Springs, MT:< New Age, Great White Brotherhood, God-consciousness, similar to I AM theology. Currently led by Elizabeth Clare Prophet. Profile available.

Churches of Christ: The independent Churches of Christ movement was one of several associations and denominations that developed from Alexander Campbell, Walter Scott and Barton W. Stone's restoration movement of the early 19th century which was designed to promote unity among Protestants. Many (but not all) Churches of Christ today, however, differ from traditional Protestant doctrine in two key areas. Many maintain that water baptism and/or other commandments (rather than grace through faith alone) are a requirement of salvation. Some also believe that today's Churches of Christ are the only true churches on earth and that they can literally trace their history to the first century church in Jerusalem. See "Baptismal Regeneration," "Salvation by Grace," "Salvation by Works."

Circle Madison, WI: Pagan newspaper.

Circle Network News Mt. Horeb, WI: Paganism, shamanism, Wicca, Goddess worship. Publishes the Circle Network News newsletter.

Circle of Life, Dorothy Espiau Houston, TX: Healing planet Earth, forces of Divinity, Crystals, believe dolphins are alien beings.

Circle of Light Dallas, TX: New Age periodical.

Circle of Light, Inc. Honolulu, HI: New Age, follow Lord Michael, astral planes, Channeling.

City of the Sun Foundation Columbus, NM: Channeling, Chakras, Christ-consciousness, Karma, man is part of God , man is perfect.

Clairvoyance: The supposed ability to supernaturally "see" psychic information including historical or future events or other phenomena that cannot be discerned naturally through the five senses. See "Psychic," "Extrasensory Perception (ESP)," "Divination," "Occult".

Cleage, Albert B. Jr.: See "Pan African Orthodox Christian Church".

Clifford E. Hobbs Foundation Newport, WA: Hedonistic theology.

Cognitive Dissonance: A mental, emotional or psychological state which results from attempting to hold two totally incompatible beliefs or opposing attitudes at the same time. See “Double Bind.”

Cole-Whittaker, Terry: New Age teacher, similar to Religious Science and Unity School of Christianity theology.

College of Divine Metaphysics, Joseph Garduno Glendora, CA: New Age,metaphysical teaching.

Collegiate Association for the Research of Principles: (CARP) College and University outreach of Rev. Sun Myung Moon's Unification Church. See "Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity."

Comfort Corner Church Lawrenceville, GA: UFO's, metaphysical teachings.

Common Boundary Chevy Chase, MD: New Age periodical.

Communion Letter San Antonio, TX: UFO periodical.

Community of Jesus Orleans, MS: Thought to be involved in shepherding and controversial forms of mind control.

Concept Therapy, Thurman Fleet San Antonio, TX: New Age, stress management seminars, book title Rays Of The Dawn. Publishes The Beamer newsletter.

Concerned Christians, Monte Kim Miller Denver, CO: Ironically begun in the early 1980s as a Christian ministry to expose cults and false teaching, Miller’s organization began to take on cult-like characteristics in later years. Becoming increasingly controversial and bizarre, Miller’s group drew national media attention in 1998 when over 50 followers fled the Denver area and disappeared after Miller predicted the Apocalypse was to begin and that Denver was to be destroyed by an earthquake on October 10. Miller, who claims to be one of the two end-time prophets mentioned in the Revelation 11, published Report from Concerned Christians and Take Heed Update. Produced Our Foundation radio program. Profile available.

Conciliation Ministries, Dusean Berkich Lawrence, KS: Conversion should be inward to self, not to Jesus.

Confraternity of Deists Homosassa Springs, FL: Reject sin, no need for a Savior, no consciousness after death.

Congregation of God Seventh Day, John Pinkston: Worldwide Church of God break-off group. Teaches a form of Armstrongism. Publishes The Herald Magazine. See "Armstrongism."

Confucianism, Chiu King: (King Fu-tzu or Confucius - "Kung the Master") A world religion base on the teachings of Chiu King who, according to tradition, was born in Lu, China about 550 B.C. Chiu King promoted peace and social harmony through the traditions of the ancestors. He is said to have collected, edited and written commentaries on four ancient manuscripts (including the I Ching). He also wrote Ch'un Ch'iu ("The Annals of Spring and Autumn") These documents comprise the Five Classics and along with the Four Books (a collection of his sayings) form the basis of Confucianism. Doctrines include ancestor worship, devotion to family elders, and right conduct based on the inherent goodness of man. See "I Ching."

Congregation of God San Jose, CA: See "Answers Research and Education."

Congregation of God Seventh Day, John Pinkston: Worldwide Church of God break-off group. Teaches a form of Armstrongism. Publishes The Herald magazine. See "Armstrongism."

Congregation of the Firstborn, Raymond Glenn Grapeland, TX: Jesus is not God, Sabbath and Festival keeping.

Congregation of Yahweh Pittsburgh, PA: Sacred name, sabbatarian, Old Testament Feast days and dietary laws kept, the Holy Spirit is the power of God. Publishes The Restoration Message newsletter.

Conscious Living Foundation Drain, OR: New Age, states of consciousness, guided imagery. Publishes the Gentle Place and Quiet Space magazine.

Consciousness Connection Las Cruces, NM: New Age, Visualization, automatic writing, Rebirthing, Astral Projection.

Constellation, Elton Powers Dallas, TX: New Age, African spirituality, animal spirituality, Yoga for pets.

Contemplations, Inc., Ed Heinemann Durango, CO: The Universe is alive and speaks, life is crystalized light.

Continuum Foundation Chino Valley, AZ: New Age, dynamic energies, consciousness raising teachings.

Cooneyites: (Go Preachers, No Name Church, Two by Twos) Meet in homes. Jesus is only part human and part God, Holy Spirit empowered Jesus to live sinless life and can do the same for any person. Salvation by works.

Cornerstone, Jim Rector Texarkana, TX: Worldwide Church of God Splinter group. Publishes Cornerstone.

Cosmerism: Mixture of Christianity and Buddhism but embraces all religions as having truth.

Cosmic Awareness Communications Olympia, WA: New Age, channeled the Force which also spoke through Jesus, Krishna and Edgar Cayce.

Cosmic Communication Commune Decorah, IA: All religions have same common roots, communication from the cosmic Spirit.

Cosmic Light of Peace Center: See "House of Divine Bread."

Cosmic Science Research Foundation, Edward Palmer Portland, OR: New Age, UFO information given by Hierarchical Intelligence on the various planes of consciousness.

Cosmic Wisdom, Clark Wilkerson Honolulu, HI: New Age, Kabbala, psychic, ESP, cosmic consciousness, Universal Mind.

Council of Light Honolulu, HI: Ascended Masters, has similarities to I AM movement, Channeling.

Council of the Magickal Arts Austin, TX: Paganism, Witchcraft, Goddess worship, ritual Magic.

A Course in Miracles, Helen Schucman: New Age book given through the channeled voice of "Jesus". The world, sin and sickness are all illusions. Allegedly, man is still in heaven with God and this life is a dream. Profile available.

Coven Gardens Boulder, CO: Occult, pagan, Wicca, revive Egyptian deities.

Covered Bridge Canyon Spanish Fork, UT: Pantheism, Channeling, deny reality of death.

Covey, Stephen: Mormon author with New Age affinities. Author of the best-selling, 7 Habits of Highly Effective People.

Creation Calendar, Verlis W. Johnson Kermit, TX: Necessary to keep Sabbath, Law, Feast Days, etc. for salvation.

Creme, Benjamin: See "Tara Center."

Crossroads Church of Christ: See "Boston Church of Christ."

Crowley, Aleister: An English Magician and Occultist. Crowley (1875-1974) was known for sex magic, homosexual rituals and a fascination with drugs, blood and torture. Headed the British branch of Ordo Templi Orientis (OTO), founded the Abbey of Thelema at Cefalu in Sicily. Author of Diary of a Drug Fiend and Magick in Theory and Practice.

Crusade of Innocence: See "Process Church of the Final Judgement." Believed to be a splinter group.

Chrysalis Foundation Durango, CO: Metaphysical and holistic healing center.

Crystals Consciousness, Warren Klausner San Diego, CA: New Age, Crystal healing, Kundalini, iridology.

Crystals Horizons Santa Barbara, CA: New Age, Crystals.

Crystal Pathway Denver, CO: New Age/Occult periodical.

Crystals: Predominately a New Age belief that gems (especially Crystals) possess mystical, Esoteric, spiritual powers to bring the bearer health, wealth and good fortune.

Cult: See the "Definitions" section in the introduction. Profile available.

Cult Awareness Network: (CAN) Headed by Cynthia Kisser and based in Chicago, IL, this was once the largest secular cult watch organization or anti-cult group in America. According to Kisser, between 1991 and 1996 CAN was the victim of approximately 50 lawsuits directly or indirectly sponsored by members of the Church of Scientology, an organization considered by CAN to be a dangerous cult.  CAN eventually lost one of those civil suits, Unity School of Christianity."

Dalai Lama: See "Tibetan Buddhism."

Dallas Fellowship, Inc. Arlington, TX: New Age, Use the Urantia book as their main text. Publishes The Circle newsletter.

Davera Mission Church Korea: See "Church of the Living Stones."

David, John, Learning Institute: See "John-David Learning Institute."

David, Moses: (King David) Pseudonym for David Berg, the late founder of The Children of God. See "Family, The" (Children of God).

Davis, Hayiland Albany, NY: Break-off group from Watchtower Bible and Tract Society.

Dawn Bible Students East Rutherford, NJ: One of the original splinter groups formed after Joseph Rutherford assumed leadership of the Watchtower Bible and Tract Society.

Dayspring Resources, Leonie Rosenstiel New York, NY: Hypnotism, Reiki, Yoga, Reflexology, Crystals healing.

de Mello, Anthony: An Indian-born Jesuit priest, who wrote a number of New Age books that were bestsellers in many countries. His works include One Minute Wisdom, One Minute Nonsense, Wellsprings: A Book of Spiritual Exercises, and Walking on Water. In 1998 over a decade after his death, a Vatican commission, the Congregation for the Doctrine of Faith, denounced de Mello’s writings. They warning of dangers contained in his works including a denial of objective morality and the claim that all religion, including Christianity, are obstacles to truth.

Delphi School Sheridan, OR: Uses the teachings of L. Ron Hubbard. See "Church of Scientology."

Demand for Purity: One of eight criteria of Mind Control according to Robert Lifton’s theory of Thought Reform. An environment of blame and guilt based on an impossible ideal of human behavior or perfection. This shame-based culture punishes failure and can even subtly train members to punish themselves for their inability to live up to the group’s ideals or standards. See “Lifton, Robert,” “Mind Control,” “Brainwashing.”

Demons:Fallen angels under the direction of Satan who seek to destroy God's purpose and people. Demons are invisible/spiritual beings (Ephesians 6:12), are organized and have supernatural power/knowledge (Matthew 12:24, Revelation 16:14), can possess humans and animals, (Luke 8:2, Mark 5:13), and can teach false doctrine (1 Timothy 4:1). See "Satan," "Angels".

Denver, John: Prominent New Age singer, promoted est, Yoga, Transcendental Meditation, and the Windstar Foundation before his death in 1997.

Deprogram: An attempt to dissuade an individual of religious or ideological convictions believed to be harmful through a concentrated (usually two to three day counseling procedure) designed to produce a sudden “snapping out.” Deprogramming was developed in the 1970s by Ted Patrick and others as a way to rescue family members who were perceived to have undergone negative personality change after joining destructive cults. Often presented as an antidote for brainwashing, some deprogrammers rationalized the unethical use of force and coercion to rescue victim by illegally holding individuals against their will (abduction or “snatching”) in a process known as “involuntary” deprogramming. Watchman Fellowship does not support or condone such illegal and unethical behavior. See “Brainwashing,” “Mind Control,” “Exit Counseling.”

Deseret Shadow Church: See "Church of Essential Science."

Devil: See "Satan."

Di Mambro, Joseph: See "Order of the Solar Temple."

Dianetics: See "Church of Scientology."

Discover Seminars Irving, TX: New Age, stress management.

DiscoveryWest Valley City, UT: Anti-Christian, Jesus is the Devil.

Disfellowshipping: See “Shunning.”

Dispensing of Existence: One of eight criteria of Mind Control according to Robert Lifton’s theory of Thought Reform. The organization’s dogma determines whether or not other groups or individuals have the right to exist. All alternative belief systems or organizations are considered illegitimate. In extreme cases this mindset can promote violence or murder. See “Lifton, Robert,” “Mind Control,” “Brainwashing.”

Divali: Hindu philosophy of Enlightenment.

Divination: The biblical term describing attempts to supernaturally gain hidden knowledge, usually about the future, apart from the God of the Bible (Ezekiel 21:22-25, Acts 16:16). Most often props are involved such as the hand (palm reading), the stars (astrology), cards (Tarot), or random symbols (I Ching). See "Occult."

Divine Light Center, Swami Omkarananda: Mixture of Hinduism, voodoo and animal sacrifice.

Divine Light Mission, Maharaj Ji: Hindu/New Age philosophy, teachings on the God within.

Divine Science Denver CO: Similar to Christian Science theology, God is All, man is a part of the All, thus man is God.

Divine Science of Light and Sound Marina del Rey, CA: New Age, Reincarnation, Karma, Astral Projection.

Divine Word Foundation Warner Springs, CA: New Age, channeled writings, Jesus and Christ are separate entities.

Dixon, Jeane: Astrologer, prognosticator, claims information is from Christian God, however has made many false prophecies.

Doctrine and Covenants: One of the scriptures or "Standard Works" of Mormonism. See "Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints" and "Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints."

Doctrine Over Person: One of eight criteria of Mind Control according to Robert Lifton’s theory of Thought Reform. The ideas and doctrines of the leader and organization overrule the personal experiences, conscience, and integrity of the individual. See “Lifton, Robert,” “Mind Control,” “Brainwashing.”

Dominion Press San Marcos, CA: New Thought, similar to Christian Science and Unity School of Christianity. Publishes the Theologia 21 newsletter.

Dorene Publishing Arlington, TX: Occult, talismans and other pagan memorabilia.

The Door, Wayne Mitchell Prescott, AZ: Formerly Potter's House. Alleged mind control and authoritarian/abusive leadership.

Double Bind: A mental or psychological dilemma caused when a person receives from a single leader or teacher conflicting messages or “truths” resulting in no appropriate response or answer. See “Cognitive Dissonance.”

Dowsing: Form of divination using a forked rod, a bent wire or a pendulum. Used to locate people, object or substances. Also used to diagnose illnesses.

Druid: A priestly caste of the ancient Celtic people of France and the British Isles. They were the keepers of oral history, law and officiates of pagan, Occult religious practices. See "Occult," "Halloween," "Paganism."

Druidism: See "Druid."

Dual Covenant: The belief that the New Testament (or covenant) applies to gentiles (non-Jews) only. Thus, JesusChrist is not the Savior of the Jewish people and they should relate to God through the earlier Old Testament or Abrahamic covenant. A similar doctrine called the Plural Covenant theory emphasizes other covenants in addition to these two major systems.

Dualism: An understanding of reality as existing in two opposite extremes. Metaphysical dualism sees the universe as existing in two contrary (and sometimes conflicting) realities - mind and matter, or spirit and physical, or yin and yang. Ethical dualism posits a conflict between universal good and an equal and opposite force of universal evil (i.e. the belief that God and Satan are equal and opposite beings).

Dungeons and Dragons: Occult, fantasy role playing game, allegedly uses demonic names and spells found in Occult literature. Some parents have charged that children committed suicide under the influence of the game. See "Fantasy Role Playing Games."

DuPage Church of Religious Science, Donald E. Burt Naperville, IL: Religious Science, use the teachings of Ernest Holmes.

Dyer, Wayne: Prominent New Age writer and spokesman focusing on business applications, personal transformation and motivational speaking. Also promotes Holistic Health, and Buddhism.

Dynamic Monarchianism: A late second century heresy put forth by Theodotue of Byantium and later adoped in modified forms by Paul of Samosata, Noetus and Prazeas.

Eagle's Cry Denver,CO: New Age/Occult periodical, includes Egyptian revival, Channeling, aura analysis.


Eadie, Betty: New Age author of best-seller, Embraced by the Light. Eadie, who is an active member of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, gives a supposed eye witness account of dying, going to heaven, and returning to her body. Her book contains a combination of New Age and Mormon beliefs.

Eagle's Path Grand Junction, CO: UFOs, moon festivals, Yoga, Rebirthing, Eckankar.

Earth Church of Amargi St. Louis, MO: Paganism, ritual Magic, Witchcraft, moon festivals, Kabbalah, Goddess worship.

Earthmother Therapy Center: Astrology, aura reading, chakra balancing, Channeling, homeopathy, iridology, numerology, palmistry, past life recall, Reflexology.

Earthsong, Wendy MossDallas, TX: Journey into Mother Earth.

East West Journal Syracuse, NY: New Age periodical.

Eastern School Press Talent, OR: New Age, Theosophical, Karma, astral light.

Ebon, Martin:See "Spiritual Frontiers Fellowship."

Ecclesia Athletic Association, Eldridge Broussard, Jr.Los Angeles, CA: Believed to practice controversial forms of mind control and shepherding.

Eckankar, Paul Twitchell: Mixture of pantheism and eastern mysticism, Astral Projection, Reincarnation.

EcstasyOjai, CA: New Age, man is God, realized through sexual encounters, New Age/Hedonism.

Eddy, Mary Baker: See "First Church of Christ, Scientist."

Edwards, Bishop Luke: See "REACH, Inc.".

Effective Learning Systems Edina, MN: Subliminal tapes, Visualization, ESP, Deep relaxation techniques.

Elmwood Institute, Fritjof Capra: Internationally recognized New Age author and lecturer.

Emmanuel, J. David Davis Athens, TN: See "B'nai Noah" for theological perspective. Publishes The Gap newsletter.

Emerald Circle: Paganism, know the Divine within, be part of Gaia.

Enneagram: Occult symbol. A circle with its circumference divided by nine points, has connections with the Kabbalahist's Tree of Life, astrology, or divination.

Epiphany Bible Students Association Mount Dora, FL: Break-off group from Laymen's Home Missionary Movement. Publishes the Epiphany Bible Students newsletter.

Esalen Institute, Michael Murphy Big Sur, CA: New Age, one of the original institutions for developing and promoting eastern mysticism/New Age philosophy.

Esoteric: Hidden or deeper knowledge held by an elite few. Belief that there are mystical core truths underlying /unifying religions that is unknown to the uninitiated. See "Gnosticism" "Occult."

Esoteric Order of Dagon, Soror Azenath 23rd Abita Springs, LA: Channel the energy of the Nu Aeon, collective Magical unconsciousness, worship the Old Ones or Old Gods.

ESP: See "Extrasensory Perception."

ESPress, Inc. Washington, D.C.: Psychics. See "National Spiritual Science Center."

Essene Gospel of Peace, Edmond Bordeaux Szekely: New Age, allegedly channeled by "Jesus," Enlightenment, Illness is a mistake.

Essene Light Center, Mary L. Myers Charlotte, NC: Has similarities to I AM movement, belief in Great White Brotherhood, Ascended Beings, Father-Mother god.

Eupsychia Austin, TX: New Age, Transcendental Meditation, Native American spirituality, shamanism.

Evangelical Christianity: Evangelical (from the Greek "good news" or "gospel") generally means a focus on the essentials of the Christian gospel. The term can be generally used to describe all Christians or churches that hold to or give heavy emphasis to specific conservative beliefs. These include: the authority and infallibility of the Bible, the nature of God (sovereign, holy, compassionate, personal, etc.), the sinful and fallen state of humanity, and salvation by grace through faith in the death, burial and resurrection of Christ as the only means of salvation. More specifically the term has come to be more closely identified with a widespread trans-denominational shift towards more conservative Christian doctrine that developed after World War II. See "Christianity," "Fundamental Christianity," "Protestantism," "Gospel."

Evolutionary Kingdom Level Above Human Richardson, Texas: Earlier name of Marshall Applewhite’s UFO cult.
See Heaven's Gate.

Exaltation: LDS, This is the concept for the highest form of salvation in the Mormon Church. It means to become a god, procreate throughout all eternity and rule over one's offspring.

Exit Counseling: (Thought Reform Consulting) A non-coercive technique designed to help rescue members of religions or cults that are considered false, harmful, or dangerous.  The program usually involves a two to three day voluntary counseling session emphasizing education and dialogue, often with a licensed mental health professional, a former member of the group, and/or a specialist on cult dynamics. The approach stresses true personal and religious freedom in the context of providing additional information and full disclosure, which facilitates more informed decision-making. Family counseling and intervention techniques may also be incorporated. See “Deprogram.”

Extrasensory Perception (ESP): The knowledge of an experience or a response to an external event apart from the five senses. This experience can take place either in a wakeful or dream state.


Faith Assembly Church, Raymond Jackson Jeffersonville, IN: Similar to William Branham. Publishes The Contender newspaper.

Faithbuilders Fellowship San Diego, CA: Theology similar to Jehovah's Witnesses.

Faithful Word Chicago, IL: Worldwide Church of God break-off group, teaches necessity of keeping the Law of Moses. Publishes The Faith Word magazine. See "Armstrongism."

Faith Temple, Rosemary Cosby Salt Lake City, UT: Apostolic Faith break-off. Former members assert that Cosby claimed to be the Messiah.

False Prophecy: Generally, any teaching by a prophet that is not true. Specifically, it is a prediction of a specific event that fails to occur by the specific, given date (Deuteronomy 13:1-5; 18:20-22).

The Family, Charles Manson: The followers of Charles Manson, some of whom were convicted for the 1969 Tate/LaBianca murders. Not related to the following entry.

The Family, David Berg: ( Children of God) Originally called the Children of God (COG) and recently called "The Family of Love," this group boasts communal "colonies" throughout the world. Best known for explicit sexual practices in recruiting converts and inner-group life, based on Berg's writings, the MO Letters. Not related to previous entry. Profile available.

Family of Love, The: See, "Family, The" (Children of God).

Fantasy Role Playing Games: (FRP) Players assume the identity of mythical characters and participate in elaborate mental adventures. Critics have expressed concern over the tremendous amount of time often invested in the games. More disturbing are reports that the games often emphasize rape, violence, spells, Magic and other Occult themes. Some parents have also charged that their children committed suicide while under the influence of FRP. See "Occult."

Farm, The, Stephen Gaskin Summertown, TN: Zen Buddhism mixed with Esoteric Christianity, pantheistic belief that All is God, Communal society.

Farrakhan, Louis: See "Nation of Islam."

Fate Marion, OH: New Age/Occult periodical.

The Fellowship Chicago, IL: One of a number of groups that follow the teachings of The URANTIA Book. New Age, automatic writing, ascended beings. See "The URANTIA Book".

Fellowship For Spiritual Understanding, Marcus Bach Palos Verdes Estates, CA: Similar teaching to Unity School of Christianity, denies reality of death, teaches man is God.

Fellowship of Isis: Paganism. Egyptian gods and Goddess worship.

Fellowship of the Inner Light, Paul Solomon Virginia Beach, VA: New Age, Concept of "Meta-Human" teaches man to go beyond human to become Creator/Master.

Fellowship of Universal Guidance Glendale, CA: Astrology, psychic reading.

Fellowship Press Noblesville, IN: Soulcraft library, claims of channeled information from William Dudley Pelley in the very High Planes of Consciousness after he had died.

Feminism: See "Radical Feminism."

Feraferia Eagle Rock, CA: Paganism, Magic, Spells, astrology, Goddess worship.

Fifth Epocal Fellowship Chicago, IL: One of a number of groups that follow the teachings of The URANTIA Book. Formerly URANTIA Brotherhood. New Age, automatic writing, ascended beings. See "The URANTIA Book".

Fitch, Joseph: See "Spiritual Frontiers Fellowship."

Firewalking Institute of Research and Education Twain Harte, CA: Firewalking, shamanism, Meditation, sweat Lodge, Rebirthing.

First Church of Christ, Scientist, Mary Baker Eddy Boston, MA: Believes that the idea of the Trinity is polytheistic. Teach the Godhead is composed of God the Father-Mother, Christ the spiritual idea of Sonship and the Holy Ghost is the Divine Science or Christian Science. They make a distinction between Jesus the man and Christ the Divine Idea. Jesus simply possessed and demonstrated the Christ Idea or Consciousness to a greater extent than other humans. However, all humans posses the Christ-consciousness. Matter, Sin, Sickness and Death are all illusions. Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures is their main text. Many of the current New Age teachings can find their historical roots in the Christian Science and New Thought movements. Research materials available. Profile available.

First Demonic Church, Efrem Del Gatto Italy: Satanism.

First Presleyterian Church of Elvis the Divine Bethelehem, PA: Begun in 1988 as a marketing ploy/parody by Farndu and Karl Edwards, the church spoofs traditional religions and cults by "worshipping" Elvis Presley in weekly services held on the Internet and the campus chapel of Lehigh University in Bethlehem, PA.

First Temple of the Craft of W.I.C.A. South Chicago Heights, IL: Pagan, Witchcraft. See "Wicca."

First Universal Church of God-Realization, Bhagavan Sri Babajhan-Al-Kahlil Redondo Beach, CA: New Age, God is the self within, many paths all lead to the One Destination.

First World Conclave of Light San Diego, CA: UFO's, 32 planets already joined but are waiting for the Earth to make the necessary commitment before the spaceships can land. See also "Unarius Education Foundation."

First Zen Institute of America New York, NY: Zen Buddhism, astrology. Publishes the Zen Notes newsletter.

Flag Service Organization Tampa, FL: Promotes Scientology philosophy. See "Church of Scientology."

Flirty Fishing: (Ffing) Allegedly discontinued practice of using sex to entice converts into "The Family." See "Family, The."

Flying Saucer Information Center Pasadena, MD: UFOs, aliens coming to take Earth children for seedlings. Publishes the Update newsletter.

Followers of Christ Church, Walter T. White Oregon City, OR: Legalistic sect that practices shunning and holds to a strict faith-healing doctrine. Doctors and hospitals are not allowed. State medical examiner claims as many as 25 children have died in the last two decades from complications from otherwise common medical problems. See “Legalism,” “Shunning.”

Ford, Author: See "Spiritual Frontiers Fellowship."

Form Criticism: A historical-critical approach to interpreting Scripture employed by liberal Christianity. It holds that the written documents of the Scriptures are based on collections of oral tradition. Form criticism maintains that cultural environment governed the development of these traditions. The gospels are not accurate concerning historical events of Jesus, rather they are myths created by the early Christian communities, reflecting the social, theological and cultural trends. According to the presupposition of form criticism, these various forms of folk literature, legends, tales, myths and parables were evoked when a community had a problem and even the working through of the problem produced further modifications in the story. See "Liberal Christianity," "Literary Criticism," "Redactor."

Fort Worth Bible Students Fort Worth, TX: Republishes older Watchtower Bible and Tract Society materials. See "Bible Students."

Fortunetelling: An attempt to predict the future using alleged supernatural powers. See "Divination."

Foundation Church New York, NY: Psychic development, Psychosomastery, UFOs. See also "Process Church of the Final Judgement."

Foundation Church of Divine Truth Washington, D.C.: New Age/Occult, based on automatic writings of James E. Padget as found in the books True Gospel Revealed Anew by Jesus, man becomes the very essence of God. Publishes the Divine Truth Commentary newsletter.

Foundation Church of the Millennium: See "Process Church of the Final Judgement."

Foundation Church of the New Birth: See "Foundation Church of Divine Truth."

Foundation Faith: (Foundation Faith of God) See "Process Church of the Final Judgement."

Foundation Faith of the Millennium New York: Universalism. All religious leaders, including Jesus, Mohammad and Buddha were sent by God.

Foundation for Co-Creation, Barbara Marx HubbardGreenbraie, CA: Prominent New Age lecturer and writer.

Foundation for Higher Spiritual Learning Centreville, VA: Similar to I AM theology, including the Great White Brotherhood.

Foundation for Inner Peace: See "A Course in Miracles."

Foundation for Life Action, Tara Singh Los Angeles, CA: Know one's own Christ nature, promotes A Course in Miracles. Publishes A Call To Wisdom newsletter.

Foundation for Shamanic Studies, Michael Harner Norwalk, CT: Occult, shamanic empowerment and healing.

Foundation for Unlimited Consciousness, Rain Morgan Orcas, WA: New Age, Channeling, Ramtha devotees.

Foundation of Human Understanding, Roy Masters Grants Pass, OR: Eastern mysticism, gnosticism, hypnotism, Yoga, Meditation.

Foundation of Light and Metaphysical Education Hurst, TX: Occult, astrology, psychic readings.

Foundation of Revelation San Francisco, CA: Eastern mysticism, Yoga.

Fox, Kate: See "Spiritualism".

Fox, Margarett: See "Spiritualism".

Fox, Matthew: Dominican Catholic priest, silenced by the Vatican for teaching blatant New Age theology.

Fraternity of Light Philadelphia, PA: Qabalah, Reincarnation, Karma, Inner essence is a Divine Spark.

Free Soul Sedona, AZ: New Age, spirit guides, Commune with Divine Nature, Psychic and Higher Soul Dimensions.

Free Spirit Brooklyn, NY: New Age periodical.

Freemasonry: A fraternal order revived in the early 18th century in England loosely based on associations or guilds of stone cutters ("operative" masons). Freemasonry ("speculative" masons) sought to give philosophical, moral, or spiritual meaning to the lodge, tools, and oaths of the stone cutters. Branches of Freemasonry include the Blue Lodge, York Rite, Scottish Rite, and Shriners. Affiliated organizations include the Order of the Eastern Star (for women), the Order of DeMolay (for boys), and Order of Rainbow (for girls). Most modern adherents maintain that the organization is not a religion but a club or fraternity promoting high moral values and good works. They believe, therefore, Freemasonry is compatible with and supplements Christianity and other religions. Critics counter that Freemasonry involves secret blood oaths or curses, and that the writings of respected early leaders (Albert Mackey, Albert Pike, etc.) are replete with Occult philosophy and religious doctrine contrary to Christianity. Despite Freemasonry's promotion and funding of a number of worthwhile, philanthropic endeavors (free Shriners children hospitals, nursing homes, etc.), many Christian individuals and churches have condemned Freemasonry or warned of elements that they believe are contrary to Christianity. These churches include: The Presbyterian Church of America, The Southern Baptist Convention, The Episcopal Church, The Christian Reformed Church, The Church of the Nazarene, and The Lutheran Church (Missouri and Wisconsin Synods).

Freewinds Relay Office Clearwater, FL: Promotes Scientology.

Friends Review Hillsboro, OR: Occult/metaphysical periodical.

Fundamental Christianity: Generally a reference to conservative Christians who believe five "fundamentals" of the faith: the inerrancy of Scripture, the virgin birth of Christ, the substitutionary atonement of Christ, the bodily resurrection of Christ, and the historicity of biblical miracles. More specifically the term is identified with the conservative reaction to liberal Christianity in the early 20th century. Core beliefs of the movement are virtually identical with evangelical Christianity. Some fundamentalists, however, later distinguished themselves from evangelicals (or neo-evangelicals) whom they saw as too compromising and ecumenical. More recently some have given a new, negative meaning to the term "fundamentalist" using it as a synonym for narrow-minded, bigoted, anti-intellectual or divisive Christians. See "Christianity," "Evangelical Christianity," "Liberal Christianity."


G.A.P. Ministries Elm Grove, WI: Practices Sabbath and Feast Days, sacred name. Publishes The Appointed Time newsletter>

Gabriel Society, Ruth Harders Western Springs, IL: New Age, metaphysics, Universal Mind.

Gaia: Originally the Greek Goddess of earth. Many see the earth as one large living organism made of numerous parts, much as the human body is one living organism with various parts.

Gandhi Memorial Center, Swami Premananda Washington, D.C.: Eastern mysticism, teaching of Mahatma Gandhi. Publishes The Gandhi Message quarterly.

Garvey Center Witchita, KS: New Age medicine mixed with sound medical procedures. Pyramid powers.

Gatekeepers, Christopher James Turgeon Pala, CA: A small cult formerly called Ahabah Sasah Prophetic Ministries in Everett, WA. The cult’s leader, Turgeon, once claimed to be the prophet Elijah. He and another member, Blaine Alan Applin, were charged with first-degree murder in 1998 following the shooting death of former-member Daniel Jess. Earlier that year a SWAT team served a warrant on the group’s five-acre compound located 60 miles north of San Diego and recovered weapons and other stolen property.

Gateway To Light, Lloyd G. Sellman Dewey, AZ: UFOs, telepathic communications.

Gateways Institute, Jonathan Parker Ojai, CA: New Age, subliminal tapes, Karma, Reincarnation, hypnosis.

Gawain, Shakti: New Age author who popularized Buddhism through creative visualization (meditation) techniques.

Geller, Uri: Psychic, Psychokinesis, ESP and Parapsychology.

Germain: See "I AM Movement," "St. Germain"Ascended Masters."

Ghosts: Non-physical entities or spirit beings. Often believed to be the spirits of the dead. See "Spiritualism," "Demon," "Necromancy," "Occult".

Global Church of God, Roderick Meredith San Diego, CA: Splinter group from Worldwide Church of God. Teaches a form of Armstrongism. See "Armstrongism."

Global Family Palo Alto, CA: New Age, Visualization, Higher self which is God, All is God.

Globalism: When used in a religious sense, this term most often means to lose all national identity. Mankind must see itself as one world family, without the need for distinctions between religions. All religions become true or the distinctive doctrines of the various religions must be disregarded in an attempt to achieve the new Global Family idea.

Gnostic Catholic Church of Canada Edmonton, Alberta: Paganism, Magic, Celtic rituals. Publishes the Sunspot magazine.

Gnosticism: From the Greek word "knowledge" - salvation comes through secret knowledge. A diverse belief influenced by Greek philosophy and similar to forms of pantheism, gnosticism generally taught that matter was evil and spirit was good. Forms of gnosticism affected early Christianity. One Gnostic heresy taught that because matter was evil, Jesus could not have come in the flesh.

The Gnostic Order of Christ, Timothy Harris San Jose, CA: An esoteric and mystical order reviving the doctrines of the now defunct Holy Order of MANS. See “Holy Order of MANS.”

God Saves the Earth Flying Saucer Foundation: See "Chen Tao."

Goddess:New Age,Occult, Neopagan. Philosophy or worship that embraces the Divine as feminine, the belief in or worship of female deities (often linked to primative pagan religions), and/or the search by some women for the "divine spark" of the "Goddess within." Profile available.

God's House of Prayer for All People, Samuel T. Allen Dallas, TX: Sabbath and Old Testament festivals kept for salvation.

God's Salvation Church: See "Chen Tao."

Golden Association, Ann Rogers San Jose, CA: New Age, Channeling, Inner voices.

The Golden Book of the Theosophical Society: See "Rosicrucianism."

Golden Dawn, John Phillips Palmer Lumberville, PA: Occult, Magic, spiritual authorities are Secret Chiefs and Inner Plane Adepti.

Golden Dolphin, Sheila Balenger Greenback, WA: Paganism, astrology, Mother Earth, Primal Goddess. Publishes Sacred Cycles newsletter.

Golden Eagle Sanctuary Hot Springs, AR: Yoga, Crystalss, Pyramidology, aura balancing.

Golden Lion, Ann Alexander Houston, TX: New Age, Esoteric philosophy.

Golden Quest, Hilda Charlton Lake Hill, NY: UFO, space brothers, Karma, Meditation, the divine child within all.

Golden Wheel, W.E. Reeve England: Occult, astrology, Alchemy, UFO, Spiritualism.

Good Cheer Press Boulder, CO: Publishes material promoting the Urantia book. See "The URANTIA Book".

Good, Joseph: See "Hatikva Ministries."

Gospel: From the Greek "good news," the term gospel is used by traditional Christians as a reference to the death burial and resurrection of Jesus Christ for salvation to those who believe (1 Corinthians 15:1-4). It can mean that having to do with the Christian religion. Also the New Testament books containing the life story of Jesus (Matthew, Mark, Luke and John). Sometimes "gospel" is used in contrast with "other gospels" which are false salvation messages that are ultimately "bad news" (2 Corinthians 11:4; Galatians 1:6-9). See "Jesus," "Christ," "Christianity," "Born Again," "Salvation by Grace," "Salvation by Works," "Cult."

Grail Foundation of America, Abd-ru-shin Binghamton, NY: Esoteric teachings, Christ's call for "child-like faith" no longer valid.

Grand Canyon Society Scottsdale, AZ: New Age, Channeling, use the Urantia Book as their text. See "The URANTIA Book".

Great Invocation: A New Age prayer written by Alice Bailey in 1937 and circulated by various New Age groups that believe widespread recitiation may help initiate a new utopia on earth. See "Arcane School."

Great Lakes Fellowship: Splinter Group of The Way. See "The Way International."

Great Lakes Pagan Association Techumseh, MI: Pagan, Wicca. Publishes The Covenstead newsletter.

Great Lakes Society for Biblical Research, John Cheetham: Worldwide Church of God splinter group. See "Armstrongism."

Great White Brotherhood: Generally considered to be a group of spirit beings or reincarnated teachers existing on a non-physical higher plane. See "Ascended Masters."

Greater Grace World Outreach, Carl H. Stevens, Jr. Baltimore, MD: Formerly "The Bible Speaks." Courts required church to return funds to millionaire contributor for unethical and illegal actions. Allegedly practices mind control and shepherding. See "Shepherding."

Group for Creative Meditation: See "Meditation Group for New Age."

Grove of the Unicorn, Galadriel Atlanta, GA: Paganism, Wicca, moon festivals, Magic.

Guardian Action International Deming, NM: UFO, Atlantis, ESP.

Guided Imagery: See "Visualization."

Guideposts: See "Peale, Norman Vincent."

Guild For Hermetic Revelation Houston, TX: New Age, astrology, soothsaying, Reflexology, Tarot.

Gunvik, Sigurd: This man's teachings are a mixture of Jehovah's Witnesses and sacred name theology.

Gurdjieff, George I.: Mixture of Occult, psychic and mystic. Considered by some to have been the greatest mystical teacher of all times.

Guru: Eastern/Hindu religious teacher (sometimes thought to be a focus of worship or adoration) who gives personal guidance towards enlightenment.

Guru Dev: Hindu Swami (religious master) who was the teacher of Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, founder of TM. See "Transcendental Meditation."


H2B Company San Francisco, CA: New Age, Yoga, Meditation.

Halloween: (Samhain) American holiday based on pagan, Occult Celtic beliefs and druid rituals. Believed to be a religious high or holy day by those involved in Witchcraft and satanism. Celebrated on October 31st, children are encouraged to wear costumes and solicit candy door-to-door (Trick-or-Treat). Profile available.

Halpern, Steve: Prominent New Age music composer and lecturer.

Hare Krishna: See "International Society of Krishna Consciousness."

Harmonic Convergence: A New Age, social, environmental and personal transformational event formulated by Jose Arguelles, based on alleged Mayan prophecies and astrological conjecture. Arguelles promoted a gathering of New Age believers held 16-17 August 1987 at the earth's vortexes (psychic power centers) for Meditation and chanting to theoretically usher in a cosmic transformation. Other significant dates were 31 December 1987 and a culmination in 2012.

Harr, Brian Rochester, NY: The Reincarnation of Jesus.

Harris, Timothy: See "Gnostic Order of Christ."

Hartley, Harriette Arlington, TX: New Age, psychic, channeler.

Hatha Yoga: See "Yoga."

Hatikva Ministries, Joseph Good Port Arthur, TX: Denies the doctrine of the Trinity and deity of Christ, seems to be sacred name.

Hawkwind, Charla Hawkwind Hermann Valley Head, AL: Native American spirituality, Mother Earth, shamanism, astrology. Publishes The Pathfinder magazine.

Hay, Louise: New Age, metaphysical counselor and author.

Healing Arts Expressions Solvang, CA: New Age, Healing by Meditation on a piece of art, painting, etc.

Healing Center Sarasota, FL: New Age, Magnetic therapy, Chakras, Yin and Yang balancing.

Health and Wealth Gospel: See "Positive Confession."

Health Conscious Services, Christ Singh Khalsa New York: Yoga, Kundalini, each person is his or her own Master.

Healthy, Happy, and Holy Los Angeles, CA: A.k.a. 3H0, the educational arm of Sikhism. Practice Kundalini Yoga, vegetarianism, and overcoming painful thoughts toward enlightenment.

Heart Consciousness Church Middletown, CA: New Age, Goddess worship, Native American sweat lodge, Meditation. Publishes the Harbin magazine.

Heart Dance Mill Valley, CA: New Age, psychic, Crystals. Publishes the Heart Dance magazine.

Heaven and Earth Gloucester, MA: New Age, Crystals.

Heaven’s Gate, Marshall Applewhite and Bonnie Lou Nettles Rancho Santa Fe, CA: New Age, UFOs. Applewhite (a.k.a. Do) and 38 other members committed suicide in March of 1997, believing that by leaving their bodies behind they could join Nettles (a.k.a. Ti) and other “older members” from “the next level above human” on a UFO supposedly hidden behind the Hale-Bopp comet.  Profile available.

Heaven's Magic: Another name for the followers of David Berg, produces multi-color children's posters and music. See "The Family."

Heresy: Literally, a theological dissension or division arising from diversity of opinions and aims. Generally a reference to any teaching or doctrine that is false. The term is, however, usually reserved to refer to false teachings that are considered so serious that belief in them exclude the followers from the true faith and salvation. A belief viewed as fatal to the gospel. See "Cult," "Gospel."

Heretic: A person who causes a division by teaching false doctrine. See "Heresy."

Heritage Institute Plainfield, WI: New Age, past life, Ouija board, telepathy, psychic healing.

Hermit, Jan Moody Topsham, MA: Astrology, Tarot card reading, Channeling.

Higher Source(a.k.a. Evolutionary Kingdom Level Above Human). Total Overcomers Anonymous (UFO group). In order to reach the next level you must train under an OM (older member). Christ possessed another human's body 2,000 years ago. They run a business designing Web sites. News report state that suicide is viewed by the group as an opportunity to progress to a higher level of existence. 39 members appeared to have committed suicide around March 26, 1997, near San Diego, CA, perhaps in an effort to rendeavous with a UFO travelling behind the comet Hale-Bopp.

High Point, Vance Harris Willard MO: New Age, Channeling, astrology.

High Wind Association Milwaukee, WI: Native American philosophy, Alchemy, Accelerated Human Consciousness. Publishes Windwatch newspaper.

Hinkins, John-Roger: See "Church of the Movement of Spiritual Inner Awareness."

Himalayan International Institute of Yoga Science and Philosophy, Swami Rama Honesdale, PA: New Age, Hindu theology, Yoga, Meditation. Publishes Himalayan Institute Quarterly. See "Yoga."

Hinduism: A major world religion which teaches that ultimately matter is an illusion, God is an impersonal force and that all (including man) is God. Many of the underlying presuppositions of Hinduism are incorporated, modified, and expanded upon in the New Age Movement. See "Pantheism."

Hippocrates Health Institute West Palm Beach, FL: New Age, healing, Yoga and Meditation.

Hoffman, Teri Dallas, TX: New Age guru, believed to practiced mind control. Twelve followers or close associates have committed suicide or died under unusual circumstances. Many left large sums of money to Hoffman. Her organization is called Conscious Development of Body, Mind and Soul.

Hohm Community, Lee Lozowick Tabor, NJ: No specific doctrine, all religions have truth, seek Divine Evolution.

Holiness Tabernacle Dyer, AR: See "Alamo Christian Foundation."

Holistic Health: (New Age Medicine/Alternative Medicine) A view of health care focusing on the "whole self" (body, mind and spirit) and natural or spiritual cures. Some Holistic Health remedies and assumptions (i.e., a focus on wellness and prevention) are well within the Christian worldview and are scientifically valid. Much within this movement, however, is based on pantheistic concepts, New Age "Visualization," and eastern religious beliefs such as Chinese Taoism (Yin and Yang). Most questionable are such holistic practices which have no valid physiological explanation or valid scientific proof such as Applied Kinesiology, Reflexology and iridology.

Holistic Life University San Francisco, CA: New Age, aura healing, Reflexology, Visualization.

Hollyhock, Rex Weyler Blaine, WA: New Age retreat, shamanism, drumming, Meditation, Buddhism.

Hohm Community, Lee Lozowick Tabor, NJ: No specific doctrine, all religions have truth, seek Divine Evolution.

Holy Body of the Coming Jesus Christ Mission in New York: See "Church of the Living Stones."

Holy Grail Foundation, Leona Richards Santa Cruz, CA: New Age,ascended masters, Reincarnation.

Holy Order of MANS, Earl W. Blighton: Monastic New Age group which practiced esoteric, mystical religion blending biblical themes with reincarnation and other concepts from Eastern religions and the occult. Blighton, an ex-engineer who was once fined for practicing medicine without a license, began the order in 1968. “MANS” was an acronym for a phrase revealed only to initiates. After advancing through the order, men reached the status of Brown Brother of the Holy Light while women may become an Immaculate Sister of Mary for Missionary Training. After the death of Blighton, the group underwent radical changes. The majority of followers converted to Eastern Orthodoxy and the order eventually was transformed into Christ the Savior Brotherhood, a sect of Eastern Orthodoxy. Several competing groups later formed claiming to preserve the Blighton’s original purpose and message. They include The Gnostic Order of Christ, Science of Man, and the American Temple. See “New Age,” “Esoteric,” “Orthodox Christianity.”

Holy Shankaracharya Order Stroudsburg, PA: Hindu theology. Publishes Purarnave periodical.

Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity, Sun Myung Moon New York, NY: Jesus brought only spiritual salvation, another "savior" is needed to fulfill Jesus' mission. Moon is that messiah and "Lord of the Second Advent." This group has over 200 front organizations. Moon's Divine Principle is scripture. See "Christ," "Serpent Seed." Profile available.

Holyland: see "REACH, Inc."

Homeopathy: Pseudo-medical techniques developed by Samuel Hahneman whereby minute doses of natural elements are said to cure diseases. See "Holistic Health."

Homewords, Susan Johansen Salt Lake City, UT: Channeling, Out-of-Body experiences. Publishes the Homeword newspaper.

Horoscope: See "Astrology."

Horus/Maat Lodge: Occult, paganism, ritual Magic, Egyptian philosophy.

House of David, Benjamin Purnell Benton Harbor, MI.: British Israelism, Purnell taught he was the seventh and last messenger or angel of Revelation. Publishes Shiloh's Messenger of Wisdom.

House of Divine Bread, J.L. Mociulewski Bayonne, NJ: Pantheism, Father-Mother god.

House of Prayer for All People, William Blessing Denver, CO: Sacred name, teachings on Atlantis and Lemuria.

House of Yahweh, Yisrayl Hawkins (a.k.a. Buffalo BIll Hawkins) Abilene, TX: Sabbatarian, Sacred Name, British Israelism, only true church. Splinter group of the Worldwide Church of God. See "Armstrongism," "Yahwehism."Profile available.

Houston, Jean: Prominent New Age spokesperson and author of many books on education in the American school system. Gained prominence when it was revealed that she facilitated first lady Hillary Rodham Clinton's contact of Eleanor Roosevelt. Profile available.

Hubbard, L. Ron: See "Church of Scientology."

Humphrey, Chuck: A.k.a. Rkkody. See "Heaven's Gate."

Hunger Project: Claim is to help poverty-stricken people using Visualization to rid the world of hunger. See "est."

Hyperborea, Mark Roberts Dallas, TX: Pagan, pantheistic, Mother Earth is Divine.

Hypnosis: Involves an altered state of consciousness or trance induced by verbal or non-verbal stimuli. The participant experiences reduced ability for critical thinking and is generally open to external suggestion. Profile available.


I AM Movement, Guy Ballard: Occult, New Age, pantheism, Great White Brotherhood, the god within. Founded in 1930 by Guy and Edna Ballard. Directs praise and adoration on the 18th century French Occultist, St. Germain. Publishes Voice of the I AM magazine.

I Ching: (Yi King or The Book of Changes) Ancient Chinese method of predicting the future using random casting of the stalks of the yarrow plant or three-lined diagrams (Trigams) representing, among other things, Yin and Yang. See "Divination."

I DO Twin Falls, ID: New Age, cosmic law, Karma, Reincarnation, awaiting a New Savior.

Identity Movement: Similar to British Israelism. The belief that the true identity of the ten lost tribes of Israel is the white, Anglo-Saxon race. A number of independent churches and organizations (including some militant racist groups) make up the general movement. Most deny the Trinity doctrine. Some teach a form of the "Serpent Seed" doctrine believing that Black people are descendants of Eve's alleged sexual relations with the serpent (Genesis 3). Thus, Blacks are not fully human. Opposite versions of the Identity Movement are also taught by some Black Cults. See "British Israelism," "Serpent Seed."

Iglesia Ni Cristo, Felix Manalo: Rejects the Trinity, Salvation is found only in this group and comes by works.

Imagery: See "Visualization," "Guided Imagery."

Imagine, Nora Jennings Springfield, MO: New Age, Reincarnation, Yoga, Dream Rap, uses A Course in Miracles as a text. See "A Course in Miracles".

Impossible Possibilities, Marshall Lever Annapolis, MD: New Age, numerology, auras, Reincarnation.

Infinity Institute International Royal Oak, MI: New Age, hypnosis, Ancient Mystery philosophy, Egyptian revival. Publishes Subconsciously Speaking newsletter.

Inner Connection Lewisville, TX: New Age periodical.

Inner Light New Brunswick, NJ: UFOs, psychic development, walk-ins.

Inner Light Foundation, Betty Bethards Novato, CA: Psychic, Meditation, inner spirit guides, Atlantis.

Inner Light Institute, Christina Thomas Memphis, TN: New Age, Rebirthing, Yoga, inner child, firewalking, Neuro-Linguistic Programming.

Inner Peace Movement, Francisco Coll: New Age, ESP, auras.

Inner Space Center: See "Prosperos."

Inner Technologies, Richard Daab Fairfax, CA: New Age, Yoga, Astral Projection, Meditation, Reach Samadhi (state of enlightenment), Channeling, Crystals, Visualization.

Inner Vision Brooklyn, NY: Mystical knowledge, auras, Reincarnation, astrology.

Inner Way, Bruce Derby Homeland, CA: Spirit guides, mystical use of names.

Insight magazine Washington, D.C.: owned by the Unification Church.

Insight Transformational Seminars, John-Roger Hinkins: See "Church of the Movement of Spiritual Inner Awareness."

Institute for Advanced Perception, Harold S. Schroeppel Oak Park, IL: Tarot, astrology, Chakras, Meditation.

Institute for Bio-Spiritual Research Coulterville, CA: New Age, Focusing, God-Consciousness.

Institute for Family and Human Relations Los Gatos, CA: See "Life Training," same co-founder.

Institute for the Advancement of Human Behavior Stanford, CA: Guided Imagery sessions.

Institute of Divine Metaphysical Research, Henry Clifford Kinley Springfield, OH: Part of the Sacred Name Movement. Salvation comes only by knowing and using the "correct" name, Yahweh and Yashua, and studying the pattern and symbolism of God's tabernacle. Mixture of Theosophy and Occult. Taught the world would end in 1996.

Institute of Esoteric Study Milwaukee, WI: Occult, Lunar festivals, astrology, paganism. Publishes the Lunar Letter.

Institute of Greater Awareness, Steve Mazzarella Denver, CO: Voodoo, Casting Spells.

Institute of Judaic-Christian Research, Vendyl Jones Arlington, TX: B'nai Noah, Teaches Plural Covenant, teaches from the Kabbalah and denies the Deity of Jesus.

Institute of Mental Science Nashville, TN: Mental Science, psychic energy, Hypnosis.

Institute of Mentalphysics, Edwin Dingle Los Angeles, CA: New Age, Eightfold path of Enlightenment, self-realization, Supreme Mind.

Institute of Noetic Science, Edgar Mitchell Sausalito, CA: From Greek word nous meaning "knowing." Healing through mind power, New Age medicine. Founded in 1973 with 55,000 members worldwide. Current president Willis Harman. Publishes: Noetic Sciences Review and Noetic Sciences Bulletin and ReSource. See "Holistic Health."

Institute of Sorcery Hillsdale, IL: Occult, Witchcraft, Ouija board, Tarot cards.

Institute of Spiritual Unfoldment: See "Light of the Holy Spirit."

International Assembly of Wizards Brooklyn, NY: Occult, karmic cycles, cosmic vibrations, astrology.

International Association of Scientologists England: Promotes Scientology philosophy.

International Church of Christ Los Angeles, CA: Formerly called the Boston Church of Christ, this worldwide splinter from the traditional Churches of Christ originally developed out of the controversial “Crossroads” Church of Christ campus ministry in Gainesville, FL. Former members and critics allege mind control. Practices shepherding and teaches baptismal regeneration and claims to be the only true church. Publishes Upside Down magazine. Aggressively recruits on college and university campuses throughout America and internationally. See “Shepherding,” “Churches of Christ.” Profile available

International Community of Christ: See "Jamilian University of the Ordained."

International Fundamental of Astrological Sciences New York, NY: Occult, astrology.

International General Assembly of Spiritualists, Fred Jordan Norfolk, VA: Spiritualism, clairaudient and clairvoyance.

International Mahayana Yoga Association, Bo-In Lee Jamaica Plain, MA: Yoga, Meditation.

International Meditation Society: See "Transcendental Meditation."

International Metaphysical Association New York, NY: Similar to Christian Science theology, uses Science and Health with Keys to the Scripture as textbook.

International Religious and Magickal Order of Societe, La Couleuvre Noire: See "Technicians of the Sacred."

International Society of Divine Love, H.D. Prakashanand Saraswati Austin, TX: Eastern mysticism, Divine Love consciousness.

International Society for Krishna Consciousness, A.C. Bhaktivendanta Swami Prabhupada: (ISKCON) Hindu philosophy, use of mantras, worship of Lord Krishna and uses Bhagavad-Gita as scripture. Publishes Back to Godhead magazine. Profile available.

International Space Science Foundation, Rick Ardyn Salt Lake City, UT: UFOs, claims to possess recordings of space people.

Into the Light Tahlequah, OK: New Age, metaphysics, astrology, Reflexology, Visualization, psychics.

Intuitive Explorations Quincy, IL: New Age, Karma, Astral Projection, auras, Numerology, Magic.

Invisible Fellowship Boulder, CO: New Age, promotes the teachings of the Urantia book. Publishes the Invisible Fellowship magazine. See "The URANTIA Book".

Inward Bound, Alexander Everett Arlington, TX: New Age, Centering, Tapping into the Universal Consciousness, influenced est, Lifespring, etc.

Iridology: Developed by Ignatz Peczeky, a technique which supposedly allows one to diagnose unrelated diseases (such as a sprained ankle or weak back) by reading the color patterns of the eye's irises. Some practitioners also claim ability to diagnose emotional or mental problems. See "Holistic Health."

Isis New Age Center Denver, CO: Yoga, ritual Magic, astrology.

Isis Unveiled: See "Rosicrucianism."

ISKCON: See "International Society for Krishna Consciousness."

Islam, Muhammad: Based on the teachings and life of Muhammad (570-632 AD) in Mecca and Medina, Saudi Arabia (then Persia), Islam is the second largest world religion. Islam has recently become the third largest religious body in America with over 6 million adherents. Islam is composed of three major divisions - Sunni (the largest), Shi'ite, and Sufi. The Arabic word Islam means "submission to the will of God" and a person who submits is called a Muslim. The Koran (or Qur'an), the Torah, the Psalms of the Old Testament, and the Gospel of the New Testament are regarded as holy books. However, only the Koran is considered uncorrupted. Islam rejects the Trinity doctrine, the deity of Christ and His Sonship, claiming that Jesus was only a great prophet. Muhammad is considered to be the greatest prophet whose coming was allegedly predicted by Christ. Islam is fiercely monotheistic. In addition to good works, salvation is sought though observance of the Five Pillars: reciting "there is no God but Allah and Muhammad is His Messenger," praying five times per day, fasting, giving alms (donations to the poor), and a pilgrimage to Mecca. Historically, Islam experienced tremendous growth often by forced proselytism _ unbelievers (infidels) were offered conversion or death. While many Muslims exhibit tolerance towards other faiths, even today Islamic fundamentalism promotes Jihad (holy war), against those of other religious and political views. See "Monotheism," "Sufism," "Nation of Islam."

Isthmus Institute Dallas, TX: New Age, Reincarnation, past-life experiences.


Jainism, Mahavira: A world religion begun as a reform movement of Hinduism, Jainism was born out of teachings of Mahavira (b. 599 B.C.) who denied the existence or worship of a supreme deity and taught enlightenment through strict self-denial and non-violence. Later followers, however, deified Mahavira himself calling him the 24th Tirthankara (last great savior teacher) who descended from heaven without sin and with all knowledge.

Jamilian University of the Ordained, Gene Savoy Reno, NV: Esoteric teachings, Jamil (Gene Savoy's son) was second coming of Christ, Jesus was a mystic.

Jehovah's Witnesses: See "Watchtower Bible and Tract Society."

Jesus: The founder of Christianity, Jesus of Nazareth lived in Palestine during the first century. The name "Jesus" corresponds with the Hebrew "Joshua" meaning "Jehovah is salvation." Traditional Christians believe Jesus is the Messiah promised in the Old Testament who died to save humanity from the penalty of sin. Even ancient, non-Christian sources corroborate some historical facts about His life and ministry. By far, the oldest and most thorough historical information is found in the New Testament Gospels. Attempts have been made by Christianity, New Agers, Cults, and other religions to Jesus as a "great teacher" whose ministry and/or life was radically different than the biblical historical accounts. While these efforts often define a "Jesus" compatible with their world views, they lack early supporting historical documentation and are thus arbitrary and subjective. See "Jesus Christ," "Christ," "Christianity," "Gospel."

Jesus Christ: The central figure of Christianity. Believed by historic, traditional Christianity to be the second Person of the Trinity who was/is fully God and fully man, who was virgin born, lived a sinless life, died on the cross as a substitutionary atonement for the sins of humanity, rose bodily from the dead, and will return again. See "Jesus," "Christ," "Trinity," "Virgin Birth," "Christianity," "Gospel."

Jesus Only: See "Modalism."

Jihad: Holy War. See "Islam."

Johannine Daist Communion, "Da Free John." a.k.a. Franklin Jones: Promotes violence against women in his book Garbage And The Goddess. It is said that he makes "love slaves" of women.

John-David Learning Institute Carlsbad, CA: New Age, Brain-Mind expansion, Brain relations development.

Jones, Jim: See "People's Temple Christian Church."

Jones, Vendyl: See "Institute of Judaic-Christian Research."

Jouret, Luc: See "Order of the Solar Temple."

Joy Lake Mountain Seminar Center Reno, NV: New Age, imagery, Crystalss, Astral Projection.

Joy of Living Roosevelt, NJ: New Age, spirit within is Divine, Yoga, Hypnosis.

Judaism: World religion historically based on the call of Abram (Abraham) by God to forsake the idolatrous people in Ur of the Chaldees and go with his descendants to inherit the land of Canaan (Genesis 12). Abraham's descendants were led by Moses and other prophets through centuries of trials, hardship, captivities and slavery as recorded in the Torah and the Prophets (Old Testament). Through times of extreme persecution, religious faithfulness and infidelity, Abraham's descendants maintained a strong sense of national identity, identification with the "Promised Land" (Israel), and anticipation of a coming Messiah ("Anointed One"). Out of first century Judaism, early Christianity developed largely over the latter's belief that Jesus Christ was that promised Messiah. Today Judaism can be identified as a Cultural, national or religious concept. Modern religious beliefs can be generally classified as: Orthodox (traditional, literal understanding of Jewish scripture, history and Culture), Conservative (a middle position with a more moderate religious position) and Reformed (liberal, non-literal stance on scripture often non-religious or secular with emphasis on Jewish Culture).


Kabat-Sinn, Jon: New Age leader introducing Zen Buddhism into hospitals for stress reduction.

Kabbalah: (Various spellings) Mystical Jewish teachings intermingled with teachings of gnosticism, Neoplatonism, Magic and the Occult. The word Kabbalah means secret oral tradition and was coined by an eleventh century Spanish philosopher, Ibn Gabirol. The philosophy developed in Babylon during the middle ages from earlier Hebrew speculation and numerology. An early Kabbalist, Moses de Leon, developed and systematized the philosophy in his thirteenth century work, The Book of Zolar (sometimes spelled Zohar meaning "Splendor"). See "Numerology," "Occult".

Kairos Foundation: See "Life Training."

Karma: The Hindu principle of cause and effect. Representing neither good nor evil, all actions and events are balanced with corresponding actions and events in the past or future (including past and future lives through Reincarnation).

Karma Yoga: See "Karma," "Yoga."

Katherine Brooklyn, NY: Astrology, Psychic development.

Keen, Sam: Prominent New Age teacher and author. Featured series on PBS with Bill Moyers.

Kemp, Daniel Patchogue, NY: Numerology, Qabalah, promoter of Aleister Crowley's teachings.

Kerista Consciousness Church San Francisco, CA: New Age, Divine Cosmos, the "hippie Goddess" Kerista. Publishes Utopian Eyes magazine.

Keyes College, Ken and Penny Keyes Eugene, OR: Yoga, Higher self, promotes John Bradshaw's Healing the Inner Child philosophy, NLP.

Keys To Understanding: See "Messianic Assemblies of Yahweh."

Kingdom Voice Publications, Joseph Jeffers St. James, MO: UFO, Pyramidology. See "Yahwehism."

Kirpal Light Satsang, Sant Thakar Singh Kinderhook, NY: Pantheism, eastern mysticism, guru.

Klassen, Frank Ft. David, TX: Publishes The Overcomer newsletter. See "Yahwehism."

Knight, J.Z.: New Age, channeler of spirit entity called Ramtha. See "Channeling," Ascended Masters."

Koresh, David: See "Branch Davidians."

Kosmon: See "Universal Faithists of Kosmon."

Krastman, Hank: See "Metaphysical Union."

Krieger, Dolores: See "Touch Therapy."

Kripalu Yoga Retreat, Amrit Desai Summit Station, PA: New Age/Hindu philosophy, Yoga, self-realization is god realization. Publishes Yoga Quest magazine. See "Yoga."

Krishna:According to some Hindu sects, Krishna is the eighth or ninth incarnation of Vishnu and possibly the manifestation of the supreme demigod/God incarnating as Vishnu. See "Hare Krishna."

Krishnamurti Foundation of America Ojai, CA: Hindu theology. Krishnamurti was proclaimed as the world's messiah by Theosophy leader Annie Besant in 1906. He later renounced that role to be the head of the newly created Order of the Star, teaches alternative mystical experiences. See "Theosophy."

Kundalini: Eastern metaphysical term for the serpent force (spiritual/Psychic energy or life force) within humans. See "Yoga," "Chi."

Kunz, Dora: See "Touch Therapy."


L. Ron Hubbard Gallery Hollywood, CA: Promotes Scientology philosophy.

Laksmi: (or Lakshma) The name of one of Krishna's consorts. Also a Hare Krishna term for money. See "International Society for Krishna Consciousness."

Laodicean Home Missionary, John Krewson Ft. Myers, FL:Break-off of Watchtower Bible and Tract Society.

Lao-tzu: See "Taoism."

Laughing Dove Albuquerque, NM: Produces "consciousness raising products for Body, Mind and Spirit."

Laymen's Home Missionary Movement, Raymond Jolly Chester Springs, PA: Splinter group from Watchtower Bible and Tract Society. Publishes The Bible Standard and Herald of Christ's Kingdom newsletter.

Lazaris: See "Pursel, Jach."

LDS: See "Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints."

Lectorium Rosicrucianism Bakersfield, CA: Splinter of Rosicrucian philosophy. See "Rosicrucianism."

Lee, Bo-In: See "New Life HealthCenter".

Legalism: The belief that spirituality or salvation is dependent upon strict observance of laws and/or rituals. A system or righteous rules must be kept to please God or religious leaders. See "Salvation by Grace," "Salvation by Works," "Gospel," "Spiritual Abuse."

Lemurian Fellowship Ramona, CA: Esoteric Christianity, The Great Being called Christ which was over 76,000 years ago, Atlantis.

Lenz, Frederick: See "Zen Master Rama".

Liberal Christianity: Generally, any movement within professing Christianity that questions the accuracy and/or relevancy of Bible doctrine and history in favor of religious values and experience. More specifically, the influence of German rationalism on European (and later American) Christian doctrine that attempted to "demythologize" Christianity by forming a non-supernatural understanding of biblical miracles, inspiration, and historical theology. The result is a rejection of the stated authorship and historical accuracy of biblical books and a denial of Christ's virgin birth, substitutionary atonement, resurrection, etc. Most influential in mainline Protestant denominations, liberalism receives its philosophical inspiration from the dialecticalism of Immanuel Kant and religious thought from Friedrich Schleirmacher, Rudolph Bultmann and Paul Tillich. See "Christianity," "Evangelical Christianity," "Fundamental Christianity."Christianity," "Roman Catholicism," "Gospel."

Life Enhancement Systems Houston, TX: Yoga, Meditation.

Life Training Dallas, TX: New Age, seminars, awaken to new level of awareness and belief systems, eastern spiritual philosophy.

Life Understanding Foundation Santa Barbara, CA: New Age, pyramid energy, Dowsing, Yoga, UFO and Crystals.

Lifton, Robert: Dr. Lifton developed studied Mao Tse-Tung’s programs of “Thought Reform” or Chinese brainwashing while doing research for military intelligence. His study focused on radical change in personality and belief systems of certain prisoners-of-war who were held and tortured in Chinese camps. This research was later expanded in his 1961 work, Thought Reform and the Psychology of Totalism, in which he theorized that subtle elements of these brainwashing techniques could also be found in other environments. He outlined eight criteria for “thought reform,” which he called: Milieu Control, Mystical Manipulation, Loading the Language, Doctrine over Person, Sacred Science, Cult of Confession, Demand for Purity, and Dispensing of Existence. While some elements of these criteria could be found in virtually any group, Lifton warned that an environment of mind control or thought reform exists when all eight are found implemented in the extreme. See “Brainwashing,” “Mind Control.”

LightCanal Winchester, OH: Tarot cards, astrology, runes, aura, moon Magic, Occult medicine.

Light Connections Cardiff, CA: New Age/eastern mystic periodical.

Light of the City Ministry Renton, WA: Magic power of words, Christ-consciousness. Publishes the Let There Be Light magazine.

Light of the Holy Spirit, Harry Lee Holmberg Bativia, IL: Astrology, auras, some similarities to the I AM movement, Meditation.

Light of the Universe, Maryona Tiffin, OH: New Age, Transcendental Meditation, UFO. Publishes The Lotus quarterly.

Light of Truth Church, Fra Zarathustra Pasadena, CA: Occult, Magic, paganism, Qabalah. Publishes The White Light newsletter.

Light of Truth Church of Divine Healing: See "International General Assembly of Spiritualists."

Light of Yoga Society Cleveland Heights, OH: Yoga. Publishes Yoga In America magazine. See "Yoga."

Light Speed, Zavi and Zava Sedona, AZ: New Age, UFO, Channeling. Publishes the Light Speed magazine.

Lighted Way Santa Monica, CA: Pyramidology, Visualization, Kundalini, Divine Mother, Alchemy.

Lightworker Azel, TX: New Age, Christ-consciousness, astrology, Psychic. Publishes the Lightworker newspaper.

Lion and Lamb Ministries, Monte W. Judah Norman, OK: Messianic Jewish ministry. Holds that Jesus is the biblical Messiah. Legalistic tendencies, Sabbatarian, practices Jewish holy days. Judah falsely predicted that the Abomination of Desolation prophesied in the Bible would occur by March of 1997 promising he would be “totally discredited” and “shut down” the ministry if wrong. On March 23, 1997 he apologized for the false prediction but reneged on his vow to disband the movement. [Note: this group should not be confused with the Texas-based Lamb & Lion Ministries, a reputable Christian organization led by David R. Reagan.] See “Sabbatarianism,” “Legalism,” “False Prophecy.”

Literary Criticism: An approach to biblical interpretation used by liberal Christianity, this historical-critical method attempts to discover underlying literary sources, stylistic variances, types of literature and questions relating to authorship, unity, and dates of biblical texts. See "Liberal Christianity," "Form Criticism," "Redactor."

Little Flock: (Anointed Class) Refers to the 144,000 Jehovah's Witnesses who will be allowed to go to heaven. All other worthy Jehovah's Witnesses (the "other sheep") will live for eternity on a new paradise earth.

Lively Stones Fellowship Palatka, FL: New Age, Reflexology, Yoga, Body/Mind Centering.

Living Stream Ministry: See "The Local Church."

Living Waters, Lois Roden Waco, TX: Sacred name, the Trinity is Father, Mother (Holy Spirit) and Son. Published Shekinah newsletter. Now defunct. See "Branch Davidians."

L/L Research Louisville, KY: New Age, Channeling, UFO, attain Higher God-self.

Llewellyn New Times St. Paul, MN: Occult/pagan periodical.

Loading the Language: One of eight criteria of Mind Control according to Robert Lifton’s theory of Thought Reform. Limiting or controlling the thought processes by regulating the language in such a way that communication constricts and limits rather than expands human understanding. This may include the use of thought-stopping cliches or artificially reducing complex issues to a false black/white dichotomy. See “Lifton, Robert,” “Mind Control,” “Brainwashing.”

The Local Church, Watchman Nee, Anaheim, CA: Controversial movement begun in China in the early 1920s by Ni To-sheng (Watchman Nee). Growth and controversy developed during the administration of their second leader, the late Witness Lee, who moved to America in 1962 founding Living Stream Ministry. Among issues drawing criticism from evangelical Christians is the Local Church's use of the term "mingling" to describe the relationship between God and believers (i.e., Christians become both divine and human like Jesus). Some evangelicals have also charged that the church compromises the Trinity doctrine by confusing the Persons of the Holy Spirit and the Son (See "Modalism"). The organization's exclusivity has also comme under fire. According to Lee, each city should have only one church. Denominationalism is seen as of the Devil. According to critics, the effect is that Lee led local churches, usually called by the name of their cities (i.e., the Church in Anaheim or the Church in Chicago), become the only true expressions of the Body of Christ. Thus, according to former members, all other churches or denominations are seen as being outside the will of God or not true churches at all. The Local Church has also gained a reputation for threatening legal action to prevent unfavorable public evaluation of its movement. Even Christian critics have been targeted, adding to the evidence that they do no consider believers outside their movement to be true or obedient Christians (1 Corinthians 6:1-8).

The Lodge: See "Freemasonry".

Lor'd Industries Hancock, WI: Occult/New Age periodical.

Lotus: New Age periodical.

Louis Foundation, Louis Eastsound, WA: New Age, cosmic consciousness, Unmanifested Reality, Inner secrets, True Realization and Awareness.

Loving Relationships Training, Sondra Ray: New Age, seminars, Rebirthing.

Lucifer: See "Satan."

Lucifer Trust: See "Arcane School."

Lucis Trust: See "Arcane School."

Lumen Foundation San Francisco, CA: Occult, Tarot, Alchemy, Esoteric traditions, Kabbalah. Publishes the Gnosis journal.

Lumin Essence Productions Oakland, CA: New Age, Channeling, spirit entities,ascended masters Orin and DaBen. Publishes Birth Into Light newsletter.

Luna Astrological Services Flint, MI: Astrology.


Mackey, Albert: See "Freemasonry".

MacLaine, Shirley: New Age, seminars, Channeling, pantheistic theology.

Mafu: See "Torres, Penny."

Magi Center, Inc. Paradise, CA: PsychicChanneling, Higher Beings, Meditation, cosmic friends, astral worlds.

Magic: Occult ceremonial use of amulets and talismans. May involve necromancy or divination, invocation of infernal deities or use of natural elements to gain supernatural power or knowledge. The word magic is also used to describe a type of stage performance involving legerdemain (slight of hand) or illusion with no alleged Psychic or occult power. This type of stage magic is not inherently evil although occultists have occasionally used stage magic in an attempt to claim supernatural abilities.

Magic - The Gathering: A fantasy role playing card game involving satanism, witchcraft, and the occult. See Fantasy Role Playing".

Maharishi Ayur-Ved Foundation: Promotes teachings of Maharishi Mahesh Yogi.

Maharishi International University, Maharishi Mahesh Yogi Fairfield, IA: New Age/Hinduism, See also "Transcendental Meditation."

Maharishi Mahesh Yogi: See "Transcendental Meditation."

Mahavira: See "Jainism."

Mahikari, Kutama Okada Houston, TX: Japanese philosophy, Divine light purifies the soul, mind and body.

Malcolm X: See "Nation of Islam."

Mandragore New York, NY: Egyptian rituals, Alchemy, polytheism, Goddess worship, teachings of Aleister Crowley.

Mantra: Eastern mysticism or New Age term for a word or series of words that are repeated over and over either verbally or silently. The Mantra is said to help one achieve an altered state of consciousness. Often practiced during Meditation or relaxation exercises.

Marah Madison, NJ: Occult, Magic, Goddess worship, Egyptian revival, Wicca, moon festivals, divination, runes, astral journeys.

Maranatha Ministries Brooklyn, MI: End time prophecy group. Taught Christ would return in 1998.

Mark-Age Miami, FL: New Age, light-Body manifestations, UFO, Lord Sananda, Christ-consciousness.

Martindale, Craig: Current leader of The Way. See "The Way International."

Mary’s House of David, Mary Purnell Benton Harbor, MI, Founded by the widow of Benjamin Purnell. See “House of David.”

Masonry: See "Freemasonry".

Master of Life, Dick Sutphen Agoura Hills, CA: New Age, Reiki, astrology, automatic writing. Publishes the Winners newspaper.

Masters, Roy: See "Foundation of Human Understanding."

Matagiri Sri Aurobindo Center, Inc.: New Age, Yoga, Divine reality, Great Mother, self perfection.

Maya: The Hindu principle that all is an illusion and that ultimately the physical world, contacted through the conscious mind and the five senses, does not represent reality. This philosophy is also taught by many within the New Age Movement.

Maya Factor, Jose Arguelles: New Age book on which the Harmonic Convergence was based. See "Harmonic Convergence."

Mayan Order San Antonio, TX: New Age, Unity between man's Inner force and Cosmic Universal force. Publishes Mayan Mysteries magazine.

McKean, Kip: See "Boston Church of Christ."

Meditation: Entering an altered state of consciousness by use of a Mantra, Yoga, deep relaxation techniques, controlled breathing or Visualization. Often linked to eastern metaphysical philosophies, the New Age and/or eastern religions, these techniques promote the emptying of the mind or the suspension of critical thinking. This is different from biblical Meditation where one is encouraged to meditate on God, His attributes or His word employing the whole mind (Joshua 1:8; Luke 10:27).

Meditation Group for New Age Ojai, CA: Esoteric philosophy, Meditation.

Medium: A psychic or channeler who is able to contact and communicate with the dead. See "Necromancy," "Channeling," "Seance," "Spiritualism," "Occult".

Mega: New Age Community Church periodical.

Megiddo Mission Church, L.T. Nichols Rochester, NY: Denies Trinity, Heaven and Hell are illusions, Devil is of man's Imagination.

Meridians: See "Chi," "Yin and Yang," "Acupuncture."

Mesmer, Franz: See "Mesmerism".

Mesmerism: An 18th century movement begun in France by the Austrian doctor Franz Anton Mesmer who believed that astrological influences on humans was based on a force or substance similar to magnetism. He first began treating patients with magnets or charged fluids but quickly modified his position theorizing that cures were actually coming from an energy or mysterious "magnetic fluid" coming from the hands, voice, or nervous system of the practitioner. This invisible substance or magnetism was thought to be similar to electro-magnetism and was dubbed "Animal Magnetism". Mesmer's pupils were later able to induce a "magnetic sleep" (trance state or hypnotic condition) in their patients. The term Mesmerism eventually became analogous with hypnosis and was linked with both Spiritualism and Mind Science religions. See "Hypnosis," "Altered States of Consciousness," "Mind Science," "Spiritualism".

Messianic Assemblies of Yahweh North Warren, PA: Publishes The Messianic Messenger newsletter. See "Yahwehism."

Metaphysics: (Meta "after" or "beyond," physics "physical"). Originally any study or discussion of non-physical, spiritual, or non-material realities. Later, in modern usage, it usually means experimentation with, belief in, or practice of Magic, Psychic powers, or the Occult.

Metaphysical Institute for Research and Development Dallas, TX: New Age, Christ consciousness, man is divine, meditative breathing, God is All.

Metaphysical Union, Hank Krastman Encino, CA: New Age, mystic knowledge, Psychic, Channeling, Edgar Cayce materials. Publishes The Unexplained magazine.

Meyer, Aleta Albuquerque, NM: New Age, Psychic, channeler.

Michael, Sandra: Channeler, Astral Projection, Rebirthing.

Midwest Research of Michigan, Owen Stitz Walled Lake, MI: Visualization, deep relaxation techniques, Subliminal tapes.

Miller, Monte Kim: See “Concerned Christians.”

Miller, William: Baptist lay minister from Low Hampton, New York who was excommunicated for teachings that Christ would return in 1844. See "Second Adventist Movement."

Milieu Control: One of eight criteria of Mind Control according to Robert Lifton’s theory of Thought Reform.  The attempt to regulate human communication, relationships, and access to outside information and alternative viewpoints. See “Lifton, Robert,” “Mind Control,” “Brainwashing.”

Mind Control: (Thought Reform, brainwashing) While evangelicals are lack consensus on the nature, extent or, in some cases, even existence of Mind Control, the Bible does warns against seducers, deceivers, and exploiters who employ methods which can bring about spiritual harm and/or personal abuse. The Mind Control or Thought Reform model suggests that there are specific methods of deception that can be employed by abusive spiritual leaders that may result in a diminished capacity for critical thinking and suppression of autonomy in their followers.  These methods are believed to involve an intense social influence conditioning program which may include a closed system of authoritarian control, manipulative, group dynamics, a system of punishment and rewards, induced dissociation or trance induction, information control, fraud, coercion, and double binds. Depending on the number and intensity of undue influence elements, and a person’s own unique susceptibilities, one may experience a pseudo personality change and marked debilitation, compliance, and servitude. The Mind Control model should not be interpreted to mean that the subject is not responsible for the consequences of his or her decisions and actions. The Mind Control theory is not justification for holding individuals against their will or for conducting forcible, involuntary deprogramming. See “Brainwashing,” “Lifton, Robert.”

Mind Power Technique: New Age process to read auras and balance Chakras.

Mind Science: A generic, general classification of religious groups that hold to the belief in the inherent divinity of man, and that the mind or thoughts are energy forms that can create and/or alter reality. Most often used in reference to the American religions formed in the latter half of the 19th century that deny the actuality of sin, sickness, and/or death and promote health though mental practices. See "New Thought," "Pantheism," "First Church of Christ, Scientist," "Religious Science," "New Age Movement."

Miracle Distribution Center Fullerton, CA: A Course in Miracles promotional organization. Publishes The Holy Encounter newsletter.

MISA, John-Roger Hinkins: See "Church of the Movement of Spiritual Inner Awareness."

Mo Letters: See "The Family" (Children of God).

Modalism: (Patripassianism, Modalistic Monarchianism, Sabellianism, Jesus Only, Oneness) A second and third century heresy that denies the doctrine of the Trinity, teaching there is only one Person in the Godhead. While the Trinity doctrine teaches three distinct Persons, Modalism maintains that one Person (usually the Father) has manifested Himself at different times under different names (Jesus/Spirit) or modes. Thus, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost are three names for the same Person. Originally taught in various forms by Noetus, Praxeas and Sabellius. Modified forms of this doctrine can be found in the teachings of William Branham, some Apostolic churches and the United Pentecostal Church. See "Trinity," "Monarchianism."

Mother Ruth: See “Science of Man.”

Mohammed: See "Islam."

Monarchianism: A rejection of the Trinity doctrine found sporadically throughout early Christian history. The belief that God's nature is one and that therefore He can not exist eternally in three Persons. Two most popular forms of monarchianism are dynamic and modalistic. See "Trinity," "Modalism," "Dynamic Monarchianism."

Mon-Ka Retreat and Universal Mother Mary's Garden of Healing, Energy, Love and Light, Gabriel Green Grass Valley, CA: Channeling, UFOs, teachings of St. Germain, Crystals, Rosicrucian teachings, Psychic readings. Publishes the News From The Mountain Top newsletter.

Monotheism: The doctrine that there is only one God.

Monroe Institute, Robert Monroe Faber, VA: Out-of-Body experiences, Evolution of Human Consciousness.

Moon, Sun Myung: See "Holy Spirit Association of World Christianity."

Moonies: Followers of Rev. Sun Myung Moon's Unification Church. Considered a derogatory term by members. See "Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity."

Mormonism: See "Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints."

Moses de Leon: See "Kabbalah".

Moyer, Bill: Former Baptist known for his exploration of New Age themes on public television. On PBS specials he promoted Campbell's Power of Myth and New Age medicine. See "Campbell, Joseph", "Holistic Health."

Muhammad: See "Islam."

Muhammad, Elijah: See "Nation of Islam."

Murray, Arnold: See "Shepherd's Chapel".

Muscle Testing: See "Applied Kinesiology."

Music Square Church: See "Alamo Christian Foundation."

Muslim: See "Islam."

Mysteria Products Company: See "Dorene Publishing."

Mystical Crossroads Atco, NJ: Occult, Magick, Neo-pagan, witchcraft. Access to over 35,000 metaphysical books; sells incense, oils, cauldrons, candles, crystals, statues and the complete "Wiccan Altar Set."

Mystical Manipulation: One of eight criteria of Mind Control according to Robert Lifton’s theory of Thought Reform.  A group dynamic involving contrived, manipulated behavior designed to appear spontaneous which produces feelings and/or actions that are misinterpreted as spiritual phenomena. See “Lifton, Robert,” “Mind Control,” “Brainwashing.”


Narconon Los Angeles, CA: Promotes Scientology philosophy.

Nation of Islam, Elijah Muhammad: A sect of Islam originating in America composed of black Americans. Followers, sometimes called Black Muslims, believe that Allah (God) appeared in 1930 to the last great prophet Elijah Muhammad, in the person of Wallace D. Fard. Elijah Muhammad borrowed many beliefs from traditional Islam but introduced important differences. Most notable was the focus on black oppression and equating satan and evil with the white race. Malcolm X became a notable leader of the movement in the 1960s and the focus on black supremacy and militancy escalated. Malcolm X later converted to traditional Islam and rejected radical black supremacy and was subsequently murdered. The current leader of the Nation is Islam is Louis Farrakhan. See "Islam."

Nation of Yahweh, Yahweh ben Yahweh,a.k.a., Hulon Mitchell, Jr. Miami, FL: Believes God is Black and Mitchell is God. See "Identity Movement," "Serpent Seed," "Yahwehism." Profile available.

National Council for Geocosmic Research Westchester, IL: Astrology, Magic, Karma. Publishes the Tree of Life newsletter.

National Institute for Clinical Application of Behavioral Medicine Mansfield Center, CT: Hypnosis, guided imagery, Visualization, Neuro-Linguistic Programming.

National Spiritual Science Center, Alice Tindalli Washington, D.C.: Pantheistic, God is All, Universal Creative Energy.

National Spiritualist Association of Churches Cassadaga, FL: Occult, Spiritualism, mediumship.

Native American Spirituality: The religious beliefs, practices and rituals associated Native Americans. Early Native American beliefs, though diverse, often shared common religious ideas. Many believed in a "Great Spirit," that nature in all of its forms possessed spirits, and that all life was interconnected. Seasons and moons often were viewed as marking times of evocation for spirits and prosperity. New Age beliefs have been promoting a revival of Native American spirituality seeing obvious parallels with their views. See "New Age Movement," "Spiritism."

Natures Sunshine, Kristine Hughes Spanish Fork, UT: Iridology, Reflexology, muscle testing, Visualization. Publishes the Natures Field newsletter.

Natural Law Party: Political party started by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi who is the father of Transcendental Meditation (TM). Critics allege it exists to promote the Maharishi’s religious movement at taxpayers’ expense through campaign matching funds provided for political candidates in the United States. See “Transcendental Meditation.”

Necromancy: Attempts to discover the future or obtain information by invoking help of the dead or communication with the dead. See "Occult," "Divination," "Spiritualism."

Nelson, Bernard San Antonio, TX: Occult, Talisman, charms, amulets, UFO's, Alchemy. Publishes The Illustrated Cosmic Machine newsletter.

Neo-Orthodox Christianity: Development associated with Swiss theologians Karl Barth and Emil Brunner's strong reaction against the barrenness of liberal Christianity. They felt that Scripture, although a flawed, fallible, human product, could still be used by God to accomplish His purposes. Thus the Bible becomes inspired in its proclamation when the Holy Spirit quickens faith and obedience in its hearers. Thus, like liberalism, this view results in a subjective, existential encounter, which denies absolute propositional truth in revelation. See "Liberal Christianity."

Neo-Paganism: The modern revival of Witchcraft, Goddess, and nature worship. See "Paganism."

Neo-Pythagorean Gnostic Church: See "Proclus Society and Neo-Pythagorean Gnostic Church."

Nettles, Bonnie Lou: A.k.a. Ti. See "Heaven's Gate."

Neuro-Linguistic Programming: ( NLP) New Age. Techniques developed by Richard Bandler and Dr. John Grinder that allegedly enable practitioners to read random eye movements and other visual cues during conversation or counseling to "program" a client's behavior and restructure their core beliefs. Called "software for the brain," it is supposed to be faster and more powerful than traditional clinical counseling and can work without the subject's conscious knowledge. The co-founders have been heavily involved with other New Age practices. NLP failed scientific tests conducted by the U.S. Army.

New Age: See the "Definitions" section in the introduction. Profile available.

New Age Church of The Christ, Thomas Printz Long Island, NY: Ascended Masters, Karma, death is an Illusion, Father-Mother God, man is divine.

New Age Church of Truth, Gilbert Holloway Deming, NM: New Age, ESP, Impressional Readings, Psychic development.

New Age Community Church Phoenix, AZ: New Age. Publishes Mega magazine.

New Age Journal Brighton, MA: New Age periodical.

New Age Medicine: See "Holistic Health."

New Age Music: While there is music composed to promote New Age philosophy and/or facilitate Altered States of Consciousness and Meditation, much of the music sold as such is not explicitly New Age in doctrine. Some light jazz, instrumental music has been labeled (or re-labeled) "New Age" simply as a marketing category.

New Age Symposium Houston, TX: New Age periodical.

New Age Teachings Brookfield, MA: New Age, Meditation, cosmic vibrations, divine energy.

New Church: See "Swedenborg Foundation."

New Dimensions Foundation San Francisco, CA: New Age, shamanism, Native American spirituality, homeopathy, Goddess worship, Sufism.

New Life, Vernon Howard Boulder City, NV: New Age, Channeling, cosmic power.

New Life Clinic Baltimore, MD: Parapsychology, Psychic phenomena, Clairvoyance. Headquartered at Mount Washington Methodist Church. Associate director, Olga Worrall, and her husband, Ambrose Worrall are also affiliated with Spiritual Frontiers Fellowship and the Association for Research and Enlightenment.

New Life HealthCenter, Bo-In Lee Jamaica Plain, MA: Treats illnesses (from eating disorders to cancer) through Eastern medicine. See Holistic Health," "Acupuncture," "Accupressure".

New Realities Washington, D.C.: New Age periodical.

New Thot Free Thot, Bill Greenhouse Los Angeles, CA: Seeks to combine the teachings of Christian Science, Unity School of Christianity and New Thought philosophy. Publishes the New Thot Free Thot magazine.

New Thought: Similar to Christian Science theology, however, it usually maintains the reality of matter. Rejects Christ as a person by explaining that the Christ is only a principle. See "Mind Science." "Religious Science."

New Times Seattle, WA: New Age periodical.

New World Publishing Phoenix, AZ: New Age, uses A Course in Miracles, Channeling, Christ-consciousness, Pyramidology.

New World Translation: Official Bible translation published by the Jehovah's Witnesses. Key verses have been inaccurately rendered especially to obscure the deity of Christ. This translation has been universally rejected as inaccurate by competent Bible scholars. See "Watchtower Bible and Tract Society."

Newbrough, John: See "OAHSPE".

Nichiren Shoshu of America (NSA), Daisakqu Ikeda Santa Monica, CA: Name recently changed to Soka Gakkai, International (SGI). A Cult, of Soka Gakkai Buddhism, a mystical form of Buddhism based on the teachings of a 13th century Japanese fisherman, Nichiren Daishonin, who taught that the true interpretations of Buddha's teachings were recorded in the Lotus Sutra The sect promotes enlightenment though gongyo. This involves kneeling before a gohonzon (black wooden box containing passages from the Lotus Sutra), quoting this scripture, and chanting the daimoku ("nam-myoho-renge-kyo."). Compared with other forms of Buddhism, this sect is very aggressive in their missionary efforts. This sect allegedly practices mind control, authoritarianism and desires world power. See "Buddha," "Buddhism."

Nightingale-Conant Chicago, IL: Publishes books and audio tapes on personal growth, business, positive mental attitude, and self help. A significant portion of their material contains New Age themes.

Nirvana: Hindu state of enlightenment or bliss.

Niscience Glendale, CA: New Age, Karma, thought Talisman, Meditation, Christ-consciousness.

Nizhoni School of Global Consciousness Galisteo, NM: Higher self, Kundalini, Meditation.

NLP: See "Neuro-Linguistic Programming."

Noahides: See "B'nai Noah".

Nova 8 Pueblo, CO: Mother Earth, Christ-consciousness, Native American "Great Spirit" is at the heart of all beings. Publishes the Living Love newsletter.

Nova Mystery School: Alchemy, Atlantis, druidism, shamanism, Kabbalah.

The Nubian Nation of Moors: See “Ancient Mystic Order of Malchizedek.”

Numerology: The use of numbers to discover hidden knowledge. Often associated with the Kabbalah, Magic, psychics and Witchcraft. See "Divination," "Occult".

Nuwaubians: See “Ancient Mystic Order of Malchizedek.”


OAHSPE, John Newbrough: A 921 page "Scripture" written in 1881 by John B. Newbrough, a psychic and spiritualist who was alleged gifted with ESP. OAHSPE is translated "sky, earth, spirit." See "Psychic," "Spiritualism," "Universal Faithists of Kosmon."

Oasis Fellowship Florence, AZ: Similar to Unity School of Christianity in its theological perspective.

Occult: From the Latin word, hidden. See the "Definitions" section in the introduction.

Occult Americana Panesville, OH: Occult/pagan periodical.

Odinism: A return to the gods of Norse mythology, Odin being the chief or supreme god, also known as Woden or Wotan. Originally worshipped as the god or warriors or leaders, it is his responsibility to delay, as long as possible, Ragnarok, the day of doom. He gained use of the Runes and passed these on to men. See "Rune".

Olcott Library Wheaton, IL: New Age library, Theosophy, parapsychology, Reincarnation.

Omega Institute for Holistic Studies Hudson River Valley, NY: New Age, aromatherapy, Kabbalah studies, astrology, Crystals, Mystical Quest.

Omega Press New Lebanon, NY: Sufism. Publishes the Omega Press newspaper.

One to Grow On, Trenna Sutphen Malibu, CA: New Age, Subliminal tapes for children, Magic and higher self.

Oneness: See "Modalism."

Order of Rhea Chicago, IL: Magic, paganism, Occult.

Oneness Pentecostal: (Jesus Only) A heresy that emerged from mainstream American Pentecostal movement of the early 20th century. Unlike traditional Pentecostals, "Oneness" followers deny the doctrine of the Trinity in favor of Modalism. In addition to this heresy, most Oneness Pentecostal organizations also teach that speaking in tongues, baptism (in Jesus' name only), and maintaining various moral "standards" are necessary for salvation. See "Modalism," "Salvation by Works".

Order of the Cross, J. Todd Ferrier: States of realization, Christhood, Meditation.

Order of the Solar Temple: Headed by Luc Jouret and Joseph Di Mambro, this group dabbles in New Age Holistic Health, Rosicrucian-like rites. 53 members were victims of suicide and/or murder in Switzerland and Canada in 1994. Profile available.

Order of the Star: See "Krishnamurti Foundation of America."

Ordo Adeptorum Invisiblum Chicago, IL: Magic rituals, Egyptian Goddess Maat, teachings of Aleister Crowley.

Ordo Templi Ashtart (OTA) Pasadena, CA: Rosicrucian splinter group. Publishes The Seventh Ray journal. See "Rosicrucianism."

Ordo Templi Baph-Metis (OTB), James M. Martin Corpus Christi, TX: Occult, Satanism.

Ordo Templi Orientis: Occult, Satanism. See "Crowley, Aleister."

Orr, Leonard: See "Rebirthing International."

Orthodox Christianity: Generically the term orthodox refers to traditional, conservative forms of Protestant Christianity usually associated with evangelical or fundamental Christianity as opposed to liberal Christianity. Historically and specifically, Orthodox (or Eastern Orthodox) refers to the state churches of eastern Europe and the eastern Mediterranean who split with Roman Catholicism of the west largely over the issue of papal authority. See "Christianity," "Roman Catholicism," "Evangelical Christianity," "Fundamental Christianity."

Ouija Board: Occult "game" using wooden board and pointer which spells out messages allegedly from the dead. Most messages are derived from the subconscious of the operators, however, there is always potential for demonic influence. See "Necromancy."

Our Lady of Enchantment, Sabrina Danville, CA: Pagan, Witchcraft, "the craft," Goddess worship, moon festivals, Psychic powers.

Out-of-Body Experience (OBE): See "Astral Projection."


Pacific Institute, Louis Tice Seattle, WA: New Age, stress management seminars, changing core beliefs.

Pacific West Fellowship: Splinter Group of The Way. See "The Way International."

Pagan Spiritual Alliance, Selena Fox Mt. Horeb, WI: Paganism, worship of gods and Goddess, Mother Earth. Publishes Circle magazine.

Pagan Way Philadelphia, PA: Paganism, deny reality of sin.

Paganism: Historically paganism has been used as a generic term to describe primitive non-Christian religions and superstitions. More recently paganism is used as an umbrella term referring to Wicca/Witchcraft, ceremonial Magic, nature worship, polytheism (especially female deities), and ancient mythologies (Celt, Norse, Egyptian, Greek and Roman). See "Occult," "Neo-Paganism." Divination."

Pan African Orthodox Christian Church Detroit, MI: Founded by Albert B. Cleage, Jr. a.k.a. Jaramogi Abebe Agyeman. Part of the Black Christian Nationalist Movement. Teaches Jesus is the Black Messiah sent to rebuild the Black Nation Israel and liberate the Black People from oppression, brutality, and exploitation of the white gentile world (from the Black Nationalist Creed).

Pan-American Indian Association: Native American spirituality.

Panentheism: See "Process Theology."

Pantheism: The belief that all is One and that One is God, thus all is God. This God is an all-encompassing, impersonal principle or force. A central doctrine for most eastern religions and New Age groups.

Papa Jim San Antonio, TX: Occult, pagan, talismans, herbs. Publishes the Papa Jim quarterly catalog. See "Cesar."

Parapsychology: The study of ESP and other supernatural phenomena dating to the foundation of the English Society of Physical Research in 1882 and continued through laboratory research at Duke University Parapsychology Laboratory, Stanford Research Institute and elsewhere. This movement attempts to give scientific validity to Occult and/or paranormal activities such as the alleged Psychic abilities of Uri Geller.

Parascience Institute Evanston, IL: Psychic powers, Yoga, psychometry, aura, telepathy.

Past Life Regression: New Age practice associated with Hypnosis which allows one to discover their past lives, Reincarnation.

Pastoral Bible Institute Milwaukee, WI: Watchtower Bible and Tract Society splinter group.

Path of Light Charlotte, NC: New Age, aura, Chakras, Universal Mother, Reincarnation.

Pathways: Ramana Maharshi Sarasota, FL: Mixture of Hinduism and Taoism. Publishes Pathways: The Journal of Spiritual Traditions.

Patrick, Ted: See "Deprogram."

Patripassianism: See "Modalism."

Peace Community Church Washington, D.C.: Jesus the mystic, Crystals clear vibration techniques, Christ-consciousness, mystical Meditation.

Peace Pole: New Age/Occult, poles or obelisks around which people sit in order to meditate or visualize on World Peace or other topics important to those meditating.

Peacevision Houston, TX: Visualization, known for the blue and white bumper stickers which read "Visualize World Peace."

Peale, Norman Vincent: Was a popular writer, promoter of the belief in the power of positive thinking popularized through the interfaith magazine, Guideposts. Peale's views of Christianity were heavily influenced by his mentor Ernest Holmes and often reflected the philosophies of New Thought, Unity and Religious Science. See "Religious Science," "Unity," "Mind Science."

Pearl of Great Price: One of the scriptures or "Standard Works" of Mormonism. See "Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints."

Peck, M. Scott: New Age author and lecturer influenced by Buddhism and eastern metaphysics. His best known book is The Road Less Traveled.

Pelley, William D.: New Age author.

Pentagram: The five pointed star shaped occult symbol used in ceremonial magic often represented the Microcosm. When inverted (two points at the top) the star becomes a "Goat's Head" or the sign of Satan. See "Occult," "Satan," "Magic".

Pentecostal Assemblies of the World (PAW) Indianapolis, IN: Oldest of the Apostolic churches. Denies Trinity, teaching a modalistic view of God (Jesus Only). Works system of salvation. Publishes Christian Outlook. See "Oneness Pentecostal," "Modalism," "Salvation by Works".

Pentecostal Churches of Apostolic Faith: Denies the doctrine of the Trinity teaching "Jesus Only". See "Oneness Pentecostal," "Modalism," "Salvation by Works".

People House Denver, CO: New Age, Subjective truth, Inner wisdom guiding, Karma.

People's Temple Christian Church, Jim Jones Jonestown, Guyana: Jones, influenced by Unitarian Humanism, Father Divine, and Marxism, founded his church in 1977. He later claimed at various times to be God, Buddha, and Lenin. In 1978 at Jones' command, 914 people (including Jones) committed suicide or were murdered. The group is now defunct.

Peyote: Hallucinogenic used by some Native American and New Age groups as a sacrament. See "Altered States of Consciousness."

Peyote Way Church of God, Anne L. Zapf Willcox, AZ: Native American rituals, use the drug Peyote as sacrament. Publishes The Sacred Record newsletter. See "Peyote."

Phanes Grand Rapid, MI: New Age, paganism, Goddess worship, Alchemy, Kabbalah.

Philadelphia Church of God, Gerald Flurry Edmond, OK: Worldwide Church of God splinter group, teaches a form of Armstrongism. Publishes The Philadelphia Trumpet magazine. See "Armstrongism."

Philadelphia Congregation of Yahweh, William Scampton Philadelphia, PA: Sacred name. Publishes the Yahweh's Watchman magazine. See also "Yahwehism."

Philosophic Community Center Denver, CO: New Age, Egyptian rites, man is Divine. Publishes the Colorado Mind, Spirit and Soul Report newsletter.

Philosophical Publishing Co. Quakertown, PA: See "Rosicrucianism".

Philosophical Research Society, Manly P. Hall Los Angeles, CA: New Age, Cabalah, past Lives, third eye, Buddhism, Zen, Christ Principle.

Pike, Albert: See "Freemasonry".

The Plain Truth: Magazine founded by Herbert W. Armstrong. See "Worldwide Church of God."

Planet Health Arlington, TX: Yoga, Meditation.

Plural Covenant: See "Dual Covenant."

Poltergeist: From German ("rattling ghost") an apparent supernatural disturbance attributed to a ghost or spirit. Usually associated with the visible movement of physical objects by an unseen spiritual force. See "Ghost," "Demon," "Spiritualism," "Necromancy," "Occult".

Polytheism: The belief in the existence of more than one true God. Examples include Greek, Roman and Norse mythology; ancient Egyptian, Babylonian and Assyrian religions, and Mormonism. See "Monotheism," "Pantheism," "Atheism."

Positive Confession: See "Word-Faith Movement."

Potter's House: See "The Door."

Power for Abundant Living: The main recruitment and initial indoctrination course (and book by the same title) for potential members of The Way. See "The Way International"

PPPANA Macan, GA: New Age, Yoga, Meditation, Goddess woship.

Prana: See "Chi."

Presleyterianism: See "First Presleyterian Church of Elvis the Divine".

Process Church of the Final Judgement, Robert de Grimston: Occult, Three Great Gods who are Jehovah, Lucifer, and Satan. Dualism - unity of Christ and Satan, both are equally good and should be loved. Grimston who wrote, As It Is, was ousted in 1974. Several splinters formed. Charles Manson was reported to be a member at one time.

Process Theology: Built on the philosophy of Alfred North Whitehead, process theology holds that reality is becoming rather than being - in process rather than static. The Bible has authority in that it concurs with one's own self-evident experiences. It teaches panentheism (all-in-Godism); that even though God is somehow transcendent, He also includes the world within Himself. Therefore, God is in process as evolving along with creation into future possibilities. See "Christianity," "Evangelical Christianity," "Fundamental Christianity."

Proclus Society and Neo-Pythagorean Gnostic Church Chicago, IL: Mixture of Occult, Theosophy and Rosicrucianism, also teaches Yoga, and astrology.

Project X: See "Jamilian University of the Ordained."

Prophet, Elizabeth and Mark: See "Church Universal and Triumphant."

Prosperity Doctrine: See "Positive Confession."

Prosperos, Thane Santa Monica, CA: New Age, Occultism, Yoga, claims people become God. Publishes The Prosperos newsletter.

Prosveta U.S.A., Omraam Mikhael Aivanhov Los Angeles, CA: Yoga, clairvoyance, Esoteric Hinduism. Publishes the Circle of Light newsletter.

Protestantism: Often used generically of all non-Catholic, Christian churches, the term more specifically refers to the movement that originated in the 16th century Reformation. Luther, Zwingli, Calvin and others led efforts to correct, reform or "protest" the errors in doctrine and practice that they saw in medieval Roman Catholicism. The 16th century protestants saw their main doctrinal differences with Catholicism to include: Soli Deo Gloria (God's wisdom and glory as opposed to church/papal sovereignty); Sola Scriptura (the authority of the Bible over official Papal interpretation and tradition), and Sola Gratia (eternal life received from God as a free gift by grace through faith in the imputed righteousness of Christ rather than by works, rituals or sacraments). See "Reformation," "Roman Catholicism, "Salvation by Grace," "Salvation by Works."

Prout Northampton, MA: New Age, Meditation, Yoga. Publishes the Prout Journal.

Psionics: See "First Universal Church of God-Realization."

Psychedelic Venus Church San Francisco, CA: Pagan, Goddesses Venus and Aphrodite.

Psychiana, Frank Robinson: New Age, metaphysics, not all have sinned, similar to Christian Science or Unity School of Christianity.

Psychic: Occult/New Age. A person with alleged supernatural powers to gain hidden knowledge apart from five senses or that which relates to such person or gift. See "Occult," "Divination." Profile available.

Psychic Healing: Occult/New Age. The alleged use or balancing of healing energy through touch or hand movements by the practitioner over the patient to bring health. Also, employing spirit guides to aid in health. See "Holistic Health."

Psychic Learning Center, Martha Woodworth Rockport, MA: Occult/New Age, Tarot reading, psychic advisors.

Psynetic Foundation Anaheim, CA: New Age, Channeling, astrology, promotes A Course in Miracles. Publishes Psynetic Calendar newsletter.

Puranas: Hindu sacred scriptures consisting of myths, legends, and historical events also occasionally used by those in the New Age Movement.

Pursel, Jach: New Age, channeler of spirit entity called Lazaris.

Pyramid Power:The belief that ancient pyramids or the geometric shape of a pyramid generates or directs Occult power or energy. See also "Pyramidology." Profile available.

Pyramidology: Study of the Ancient Egyptian and/or Central American Mayan pyramids which are believed to possess keys to hidden mystic knowledge or secret spiritual messages. See also "Pyramid Power." Profile available.


Qabalah: See "Kabbalah."

Qabbalah: See Kabbalah".

Quartus Foundation, John Price Boerne, TX: New Age, Meditation, Healing the planet, Journey to the Fourth Dimension.

Quest For Excellence Dallas, TX: New Age, Star Chamber for altered states of Consciousness, self realization, metaphysics.

Quimby, Phineas P.: Hypnotist and healer whose metaphysical theories influenced Mary Baker Eddy and the "Mind Science" or "New Thought" religions. See "First Church of Christ, Scientist," "Mesmerism".


Radiant School, Kenneth Wheller Mount Shasta, CA: New Age,ascended masters, Great White Brotherhood.

Radical Feminism: An outgrowth of the more moderate feminist movement which sought to influence societal views and laws to reflect women's equality and opportunity with men in all areas of Culture. Radical feminism, however, pushes for a revolution to free themselves from male enslavement and exploitation. Included within this ideology are some lesbians who attempt to perpetuate an actual anti-male position. Theologically, radical feminism finds influence in diverse religious traditions including liberal Christianity, liberation theology, Goddess worship, Witchcraft, neo-paganism, and New Age beliefs. The diversity of the movement aids in widespread recruitment and promotes otherwise unusual political and religious alliances.

Rael: See “The Raelian Religion.”

The Raelian Religion, Rael: UFO group founded by French journalist Claude Vorilhon (a.k.a. Rael) who claims to have communication with god-like extraterrestrials known as the Elohim. Publications include: Apocalypse (a quarterly magazine), The Book Which Tells the Truth, and Sensual Meditation. Profile available.

Rainbow Dallas, TX: New Age, Psychic, Meditation, metaphysics, uses A Course in Miracles text, shamanism. Publishes the Rainbow newspaper.

Rainbow Charlotte, NC: New Age, ascended masters, Rebirthing, past life regression. Publishes the Pathways newsletter.

Rainbow Earth Dwelling Society, J. Christine Hayes San Antonio, TX: New Age, Chakras, telepathy, Tarot.

Rainbow Group: (Rainbow People) Nomadic, New Age, communal society found mostly in the southeastern US.

Raja Yoga: See "Yoga."

Ram Dass, a.k.a. Richard Alpert: New Ageguru.

Ramtha:See "Knight, J.Z."

Rastafarianism, Marcus Garvey: (Ras Tafari, Rastas) African/Jamaican religion. Teaches that the late king of Ethiopia, Haile Selassie, is God. Profile available.

Ray, Sondra: See "Rebirthing International."

REACH, Inc., Bishop Luke Edwards Meridian, MS; Emele, AL: A.k.a. Holyland. Doctrinal beliefs are typical of the Apostolic / "Jesus Only / Oneness Pentecostal churches, these being: a modalistic view of God, Jesus' name baptism, and tongues as the initial evidenceof the Holy Spirit. Formerly associated with PAW (see Pentecostal Assemblies of the World). Salvation is legalistic or performance based. Both adults and children, raise funds by going on the "route" (going on the road for weeks at a time to solicit funds). The most common approach is for children to solicit funds outside stores under the pretense of raising moeny for abused children. See "Oneness Pentecostal," "Salvation by Works," "Modalism". Profile available.

Rebirthing: New Age. Participants rid themselves of negative Karma (traumas/problems) by being regressed back to the womb and reenacting the trauma of their birth experience or previous births (Reincarnation). Originally hot tubs or saunas were used but later practitioners developed "dry" rebirthing techniques.

Rebirthing International, Leonard Orr: Co-author of Rebirthing in the New Age with Sondra Ray helped develop and popularize this New Age practice. See "Rebirthing."

Recovery Version of the New Testament: See "The Local Church."

Redactor: According to liberal Christianity, an anonymous editor, compiler, or reviser who helped rewrite or shape biblical literature. Based on assumptions that there are inconsistencies, differences or errors in biblical accounts, it is the duty of modern scholarship to recognize the work and motivation of redactors to separate what is presumed to be tradition and Cultural bias in theological interpretation. See "Liberal Christianity," "Form Criticism," "Literary Criticism."

Redfield, James: New Age astrologer and author of the best-selling fiction, The Celestine Prophecy.

Reflexology: New Age. Healing the body through massaging certain parts of the foot or hand which allegedly correspond to the major organs of the body. It is sometimes believed to work by opening blocked meridians in the body which will then allow the body's energy or Chi to flow freely. The foot or hand is seen as a microcosm of the human body and/or the universe. See "Chi," "Meridian," "Holistic Health."

Reformation: The 16th century efforts initiated by Martin Luther initially intended to correct, protest, or reform the doctrines and practices of Roman Catholicism. Luther's efforts (later enjoined and expanded by Zwingli, Bucer, Calvin and others) quickly developed into a complete break with Catholicism. The reformers' major doctrinal issues include a rejection of: the authority of the Pope, church control of Bible translation and interpretation, a distinction in value between laity and clergy, and salvation being a product of the church and its sacraments (works). A more thorough (and in some cases unorthodox) reform occurred with the Radical Reformation - the orthodox Anabaptist movement being an example. To various degrees, virtually all non-Catholic denominations today share a common heritage concerning the issues of the Reformation. See "Roman Catholicism," "Protestantism," "Salvation by Grace," "Salvation by Works."

Reiki: New Age, metaphysical theory of healing involving the movement of the practitioner's hand over and near (but not on) the patient's body to allegedly balance or redirect energy Chakras. See "Chi," "Chakras," "Holistic Health."

Reincarnation: New Age/Occult. Belief originating with pantheistic religions of the East (i.e. Hinduism) that when a person dies they have the ability to come again to the earth, inhabit a new body, and to live as many lives as needed to progress towards a religious goal. Some teach that Reincarnation includes migration between animal, plant, and/or inanimate forms. This is often closely tied to doctrine of Karma.Research material available.

Religious Science, Ernest Holmes: Similar to Christian Science and New Thought theology. See "Mind Science," "First Church of Christ, Scientist."

Remnant of YHWH, Mark Deacon Abilene, TX: Sabbatarian. Splinter group of House of Yahweh. Sacred Name, British Israelism. See "House of Yahweh, "Sabbatarianism, Yahwehism."

Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (RLDS), Joseph Smith, III Independence, MO: Break-off of Joseph Smith’s restoration movement, which also produced the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS). History through 1844 is identical, however, after the split the doctrines of the two groups became radically different. Has slightly different version of the Book of Mormon and Doctrine and Covenants. Rejects the Pearl of Great Price as scripture. The RLDS do not hold many of the LDS distinctive doctrines including the polygamy of 19th century Mormonism and the current LDS belief that God was once a man. In recent years the church has experienced divisions with more conservative, “Restoration Branches” becoming independent. RLDS also have a historically had a leader who was a direct descendant of family of the Mormon founder, Joseph Smith, Jr. The current leader and prophet of the movement, Grant McMurray, was the first exception to this practice. See “Restoration Branches,” “Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.Profile available.

Restoration Branches: A conservative split from the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (RLDS) that hold what they believe to be a more classical, historical RLDS understanding basic doctrines, Joseph Smith, the Book of Mormon. They generally view the institutionalized RLDS church as being too liberal in theology and perhaps on social issues as well. See “Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints.”

Reverend Ike, a.k.a., Frederick Eikerenkoetter, II: Pantheistic view of God.

R I Research New York, NY: New Age, Selects people called Beyonders, possess Superior Essence.

Rice, Anne:Occult. Author of The Witching Hour, Vampire Chronicles, Interview with A Vampire, and other books with occult subject matter.

Rice, Nancy Broomfield, CO: New Age, Tarot cards, Psychic counseling, past life regression, clairvoyance.

Right Knowledge: See “Ancient Mystic Order of Malchizedek.”

The Right Way: See “Chen Tao.”

The Road Less Traveled: See "Peck, M. Scott."

Roberts, Jane: New Age, channeler of spirit entity called Seth.

Robins, Anthony: Business consultant, empowerment, personal transformation/motivational speaker whose theories often contain New Age philosophies.

The Rock of Ages: Annual music concert and convention held by The Way. See "The Way International."

Rocky Mountain Institute of Yoga and Ayurveda Denver, CO: Eastern mysticism, Karma, Tantra, Raja and Bhakti Yoga. See "Yoga."

Rocky Mountain Research Institute Fort Collins, CO: Paranormal research, Reincarnation, self-realization, Dowsing, Hypnosis.

Rocky Mountain Spiritual Emergence NetworkBoulder, CO:New Age, Magic, mystic rituals, astrology, Alchemy. Publishes the R.M.S.E.N. Times newsletter.

Roman Catholicism: Diverse worldwide religious tradition that officially looks to the Pope and his predecessors/successors as God's human leader of Christianity. Because of its size and scope - both in membership and geographically, beliefs held by devout Catholics are widespread and eclectic. Catholicism has been influenced by Liberation Theology, especially in parts of South America. In Africa, the Caribbean and elsewhere, attempts have been made to blend Catholicism with Spiritism creating a type of Catholicism with Occult elements. In addition, since the 1960's there has been a small but significant element of charismatic Catholics that have been influenced by the larger charismatic movement. A small percentage of Catholics are doctrinally evangelical and others (such as Matthew Fox) have been influenced by the New Age. As a whole, however, the difference between Roman Catholicism and Protestantism is still seen most clearly in the issues of the Reformation. The 16th century reformers distinguished themselves from Catholicism in two key ways. First, they saw the Bible as the foundation for authority (sola scriptura) rather than the Pope, church dogma or tradition. Second, they saw salvation as by grace only (sola gracia) through faith (sola fide) in the imputed righteousness of Christ rather than by merit through works (religious rites, sacraments, or human endeavor). See "Salvation by Works," "Salvation by Grace," "Gospel," "Reformation," "Protestantism."

Ro-Hun Therapy: Balancing the energy fields of the human body.

Rosicrucian Anthroposophic League, S.R. Parchment New York, NY: Break-off of Rosicrucian Fellowship. See "Rosicrucianism."
Rosicrucian Fellowship, Max Heindel Oceanside, CA: Reincarnation, chakra, astrology. See "Rosicrucianism."

Rosicrucian Foundation, Swinburne Clymer Quakertown, PA: Oldest Rosicrucian group in the U.S. Reincarnation, astrology. See "Rosicrucianism."

Rosicrucian Order (AMORC), H. Spence Lewis San Jose, CA: EsotericChristianity, Mixture of OccultAlchemy, astrology, Secret Wisdom of past Masters, Secret society, Magic. See "Rosicrucianism."

Rosicrucianism, Christian Rosenkreutz: (Literally the "Rose cross") Occult secret society allegedly founded by Christian Rosenkreutz in 1407 in Germany who was under the influence of Egyptian Occultism. The movement has fragmented into a number of competing organizations promoting variations of the same general pantheistic, Occult themes. Similar to Theosophy.

Rowan Tree, Paul Beyerlf Minneapolis, MN: Paganism, Mother Earth, Magic, astrology. Publishes The Littlest Unicorn newsletter.

Rune: An ancient Nordic Magical alphabet of 24 symbols. They are used for divining the future, performing Magic, or evoking Norse deities. See "Divination," "Magic."

Russell, Charles Taze: See "Watchtower Bible and Tract Society."


Sabbatarianism: Generally the view that one day of the week is to be reserved for religious observance as prescribed by the Old Testament Sabbath laws of the Bible. Used in this index, Sabbatarianism most often refers to an extreme form of the belief in which salvation is conditional upon keeping the Sabbath laws. Breaking the laws results in losing eternal life. In most cases, the Jewish Sabbath (Saturday) must be observed by refraining from work, sports, and travel from sundown Friday evening to sundown Saturday evening. The belief is often accompanied by the observance of Jewish dietary laws. See "Legalism," "Salvation by Grace," "Salvation by Works," "Gospel," Spiritual Abuse."

Sabellianism: See "Modalism."

Sabin, Robert: A well-known "Jesus Only" writer and speaker. See "Oneness Pentecostal".

Sabo, Sandra Gloucester, MA: Channeler, Crystal healing, spirit guides.

Sacred Cycles, Bette Barr-Glover San Juan Capistrano, CA: Paganism, divine feminine in each person, Numerology, astrology, guided Meditation. Publishes the Sacred Cycles newsletter.

The Sacred Mushroom and the Cross, John Allegro: Book and corresponding church by the late Dead Sea Scroll scholar, Dr. Allegro. "Jesus" is allegedly the New Testament code word for a mushroom to be used as a sacrament to induce hallucination. See "Altered States of Consciousness."

Sacred Name: Either the belief that the name of God is too sacred to speak (and/or fully write) or the belief that God must be addressed by a single, special name (either Yahweh, Jehovah, Yah, or Yahvah, etc.). In the latter case, whichever one true name is chosen, all other terms or names for God are considered incorrect or references to false deities. Salvation, it is believed, depends on referring to God by His correct name. See "Yahwehism."

Sacred Order of Mystic Christianity Mountain View, CA: New Age, mystic keys, Inner God, Christ within, higher self.

Sacred Science: One of eight criteria of Mind Control according to Robert Lifton’s theory of Thought Reform. The group considers that their doctrines and beliefs to be sacred and beyond question. Thus, no alternative viewpoint is allowed to exist and open consideration of alternative ideas and free discussion are quashed. See “Lifton, Robert,” “Mind Control,” “Brainwashing.”

Sadhana Society Prescott, AZ: New Age, ESP, Astral Projection, telekinesis, levitation, clairvoyance.

Sage Center, Ann Garner Arlington, TX: New Age, Use the Urantia book as the primary text.

Sage Woman Point Arena, CA: Paganism, Egyptian rituals, Goddess worship.

Saint Germain: See "I AM Movement," "Ascended Masters."

Saint Germain Foundation Schaumburg, IL: Similar to the "I AM Movement."

Salvation by Grace: The doctrine that eternal life is not gained by works but an undeserved gift from God received by the imputed (attributed) righteousness Christ through faith in the death, burial and resurrection of Jesus Christ. See "Salvation by Works," "Gospel," "Jesus Christ."

Salvation by Works: The doctrine that eternal life is merited or must be earned through human effort, religious ritual, financial donations, obedience to laws/commandments and/or moral behavior. See "Salvation by Grace," "Gospel," "Jesus Christ."

Samhain: (pronounced Sah-ween) See "Halloween."

Sanctuary of Gaia Santa Cruz, CA: Paganism, Earth festivals. See "Gaia."

Sanctuary of Revealing Light, Mildred Smith: Spiritualism. See also "International General Assembly of Spiritualists."

Sankirtana: Religious chant or Mantra repeated over and over to draw practitioners into an ever closer state of God-consciousness.

Santeria: Voodoo, animal sacrifice, polytheism.

Satan: (The Devil, The Serpent) Lucifer, a high ranking angel who wanted to be exalted to the position of God. Through this sin, Lucifer fell and became Satan, the Devil, leading a large number of rebellious angels with him who became the demons (Isaiah 14:12-14). Satan and his host now seek to destroy the plan and people of God. He will ultimately fail and be eternally punished (Matthew 25:41, Revelation 20:10). See "Demons," "Angels".

Satanism: Worship of Satan, involving Occult rituals sometimes including animal or human sacrifice to Satan. Some Satanists do not actually believe in a literal Devil but unashamedly worship greed, lust and self. See "Satan."

Savior of All Fellowship Montclair, CA: Universalism.

School for Esoteric Studies New York, NY: Masters of Wisdom include Jesus, influenced by Alice Bailey. See "Arcane School."

School of Ageless Wisdom Arlington, TX: Occult, teachings of Alice Bailey.

School of Alchemy Boulder, CO: Occult, Alchemy, Kabbalah, Goddess worship.

School of Metaphysics, Dennis Rodgers Norman, OK: New Age, reaching ultimate potential, Karma, Astral Projection, clairvoyance.

School of Natural Order, Ralph M. deBit Baker, NV: Mixture of ancient Egyptian, Greek and eastern philosophies.

School of Thought, Hope Troxell June Lake, CA: New Age, Cosmic Brotherhood.

Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures: See "First Church of Christ, Scientist."

Science of Man, Mother Ruth Portland, OR: An esoteric and mystical order reviving the doctrines of the now defunct Holy Order of MANS. See “Holy Order of MANS.”

Science of Mind Church, Lunn Gardner Mobile, AL: New Age, Channeling, Intuitive powers.

Scientology: See "Church of Scientology."

Scripture Research Association College Park, MD: Sacred name, the names "Jesus" and "Christ" are pagan.

Scully, Nicki Eugene, OR: Egyptian rituals, Magic, Mayan ceremonies.

Seance: A meeting, usually involving a medium, in which there is a deliberate attempt to contact or communicate with the dead. See "Necromancy," "Spiritualism," "Channeling," "Occult".

Search and Prove St. Paul Park, MN: New Age, Karma, Astral Projection, astral plain, ascended masters.

Second Adventist Movement: Widespread trans-denominational movement of the 1830s made up of the followers of William Miller, who taught Jesus would return on October 22, 1844. Even after the Great Disappointment (the date's failure), a few of the remaining followers continued to believe. Some suggested revised chronologies and new dates eventually forming rival groups such as the Watchtower Bible and Tract Society. Other remaining believers (Hiram Edson and Ellen G. White) suggested the 1844 date was accurate but a that a heavenly (thus invisible) event took place. These followers formed the Seventh Day Adventists which eventually spawned its own offshoots including the Armstrongism and the Branch Davidians. See "William Miller," "False Prophecy."

The Secret Doctrine: See "Rosicrucianism."

Secrets, Norma Cox Marshal, AR: UFOs. Publishes the Secrets newsletter.

Seeing Beyond Capitola, CA: New Age, Psychic, Pyramidology, Reiki. Publishes the Seeing Beyond magazine.

Self-Realization Fellowship, Paramahansa Yogananda Los Angeles, CA: New Age, Awaken the God within, Yoga, Meditation. Publishes the Self Realization Fellowship magazine.

Self-Revelation Church of Absolute Monism, Swami Premananda Washington, D.C.: Pantheism, God is All and within everything, man is God.

Serpent Seed: Doctrine that alleges Eve's sin in the Garden of Eden (Genesis 3) was sexual. Eve had intercourse with the Serpent and begot Cain, whose father is really Satan not Adam. Cain's descendants were somehow perpetuated after the flood (usually through Noah's son Ham). Diverse groups teach variations of this doctrine. Cain's descendants are: Blacks according to the Identity Movement, Communists/Atheists according to fRev. Moon, Whites according to Yahweh Ben Yahweh, the lost according to William Branham, etc.

Seth: See "Roberts, Jane."

Seven Oaks Madison, VA: New Age, Channeling, Celebration of Female Spirit, Native American Vision Quest, Mother Earth, Gaia.

Seventh Day Adventist Church (SDA) Washington, DC: An organization that developed following the 1844 "Great Disappointment" of William Miller's Second Adventist Movement. Ellen G. White, who claimed to have "the spirit of prophecy," was an important early leader of the movement and confirmed a number of SDA distinctive doctrines including Investigative Judgement and Sabbatarianism. While some within the movement have drifted toward mainstream evangelicalism, certain SDA claims and unique doctrines continue to raise questions. These doctrines include the SDA belief that Sundy worship will result in the" Mark of the Beast," an emphasis on works salvation by keeping commandments (baptism, Sabbath observance), and the "Remnant Church" doctrine that implies that the SDA is God's only true church. Profile available.

Shafenberg Research Foundation, Ernest Shafenberg Kingfisher, OK: New Age, iridology, Reflexology, astrology, Channeling, Reincarnation, Psychic readings.

Shaman: Witch doctor, spiritual healer or leader. See "Shamanism."

Shamanism: Spiritual world view of Native American and other early Cult,ures that believe witch doctors or spiritual leaders can provide healing, guidance, or wisdom through the Occult, Spiritism, or altered states. The shaman's soul is sometimes believed to leave the body during a trance at which time the shaman will speak with beings from the other worlds or assume animal forms. See "Occult," "Spiritism," "Divination, "Altered States of Consciousness," "Astral Projection".

Shambhala Institute Asheville, NC: New Age, Visualization, Transcendental Meditation.

Shambhla Publishing Boulder, CO: New Age publisher

Shared Heart Foundation, Joyce and Berry Vissell Aptos, CA: New Age, promotes numerous mystic and Esoteric writers.

Shenoa Retreat Center Philo, CA: New Age, consciousness healing, uses A Course in Miracles, Hinduism, Buddhism.

Shepherding: Christian growth is allegedly facilitated by yielding personal freedoms to a discipler or "shepherd" who controls virtually every aspect of an individual's life. This is an abusive, manipulative distortion of true biblical discipleship that can ultimately rob individuals of their liberty and autonomy that is to be found in Christ. Used by many traditional Cults, as well as by some religious organizations that are not Cultic in their basic doctrine.

Shepherd's Chapel, Arnold Murray Gravette, AR: Denies the Trinity doctrine, teaching Modalism, humans existed as "gods" in a pre-creation existence with God, and British Israelism. Murray also teaches a form of the "serpent seed" doctrine in which the serpent had sexual relations with Eve in the Garden of Eden (Genesis 3) and conceived Cain, who was a "hybrid." He claims that the Jewish people are the descendents of Cain (called "Kenites") and are "the children of the devil." See "Modalism," "British Israelism," "Serpent Seed."

Shintoism: (Shen-Tao "the way of the gods") Ancient religion of Japan that focuses more on Japanese Culture, traditions, attitudes and ideology rather than a system of doctrines or code of ethics. The roots of the movement are obscure but it eventually developed into the idea that Japan, unlike other countries, was uniquely fathered by the god Izanami whose consort, the Goddess Izanagi, gave birth to the Japanese islands. Consequently the concept evolved that Japanese people are divine and superior to other humans. In one form of the religion, State Shintoism, the Japanese emperors were seen as infallible descendants of the gods. Today devotion centers around public shrines and home altars dedicated to ancestors and gods. The sun Goddess Amaterasu is the chief deity worshipped and a belief in kami, a form of Spiritism, is also maintained. See "Polytheism," "Spiritism."

Shiva: The destroyer and third member of the triad of Hindu demigods-gods including Brahma and Vishnu. See "Hinduism."

Shriners: See "Freemasonry".

Shunning: (Disfellowshipping) An effective technique of control that used by Jehovah’s Witnesses and other groups to instill discipline, punish, or maintain idealistic purity. Members who do not maintain the group’s behavioral expectations or who disagree on dogma are isolate the current, faithful members. This includes, in most cases, even family members or friends, who are not allowed to talk or share a meal with the shunned. The faithful, who violate the rule and communicate with the dissident, can themselves be shunned. See “Milieu Control,” “Mind Control.”

Siddha Yoga Dham of America, Swami Muktananda Paramahansa South Fallsburg, NY: Eastern mysticism, Meditation, God-Realization.

Siegel, Bernie: New Age author/doctor promoting Meditation, Spiritism, Visualization and Holistic Health.

Sikhism, Nanak: A religion based mostly in the Punjab province of India that attempts to blend Hinduism and Islam. The movement is based on a vision and subsequent teachings of founder, Nanak, in the 15th century A.D. Disciples (called "Sikhs") follow the one true God named Sat Nam ("True Name"). Their main scriptures are contained in the Granth Sahib ("The Lord's Book") compiled by Guru Arjan and salvation is viewed as a pantheistic merging with the universal force.

Silva Mind Control, Jose Silva: New Age, seminars, changing core beliefs, Holistic Health.

Silver, Marshall Tempe, AZ: > New Age empowerment seminars, Hypnosis.

Singer, David: New Age, seminars, based on Scientology.

Singh, Sant Thakar: See "Kirpal Light Satsang."

Sino-American Buddhism Association San Francisco, CA: Basic Buddhism philosophy.

Smith, David J.: See "Church of God Evanglistic Association".

Smith, Joseph:See "Church of Jesus Christof Latter-day Saints."

Societas Rosicruciana In America, Palmer New York, NY: Astrology, Reincarnation.

Society of Pragmatic Mysticism, Mildred Mann New York, NY: Esoteric Christianity, Karma, Reincarnation.

Solar Quest Seneca, MD: New Age, God is the Higher Energy Force, cosmic energies, vibration patterns, homeopathy.

Soka Gakkai International (SGI): See "Nichiren Shoshu of America."

Solar Temple: See "Order of the Solar Temple."

Songs of David Marvel, TX: See "Church of the Most High God."

Sons of Noah: See "B'nai Noah."

Sophia: Greek Goddess of wisdom also personified in neo-pagan Goddess worship. See "Goddess" "Neo-Paganism."

Soul Sleep: (Psychopannychy) The doctrine that human souls sleep or cease conscious existence between death and resurrection. Usually (but not always) a doctrine associated with Adventism. See "Second Adventist Movement."

Soulmates: Marriage partners from previous lives. See "Reincarnation."

Southern Dharma Retreat Center Hot Springs, NC: New Age/Hindism, Yoga, teaches from A Course in Miracles, Meditation.

Sovereignty, Inc. Eastsound, WA: New Age periodical.

Spangler, David: Prominent New Age writer and lecturer.

Spirit Electronic Communication Society Manchester, England: A spiritualist organization founded in 1949 devoted to study Zwaan Rays, an alleged energy field that supposedly can arouse latent psychic abilities in humans. See "Psychic," "Spiritualism," "Occult".

Spirit of Prophecy Ministry Las Vegas, NV: Predicted the return of Christ in 1998. Publishes Insights into Prophecy.

Spiritism: Specifically the belief found in many primitive Cultures that inanimate objects, plants and/or animals are possessed by spirits (good or evil) which must be appeased through Occult practices. More generally, the term can refer to any alleged contact with spirits through Occult techniques.

Spiritual Abuse: The damage or mistreatment of someone seeking spiritual or religious help or guidance. This injury can occur when someone uses their spiritual position or office to exercise an improper or unhealthy control or domination of their followers. See also "Legalism." Profile available.

Spiritual Advancement of the Individual Foundation, Sai Baba Los Angeles, CA: Eastern philosophy, Avatars, Akashic records, teachings from the lost years of Jesus. Publishes the Sathya Sai newsletter.

Spiritual Advisory Council Orlando, FL: New Age, Psychic counseling, Mastering the Life Force, promotes Benjamin Creme and Steve Halpern's works.

Spiritual Frontiers Fellowship International, Author Ford Philadelphia, PA: Spiritualism, metaphysics, paranormal phenomena, ESP, biofeedback, Holistic Health. Joseph Fitch and Martin Ebon are popular leaders in the movement.

Spiritual Hierarchy Information Center Ft. Lauderdale, FL: New Age, cosmic Christ-consciousness.

Spiritual Horizons Church Houston, TX: Esoteric Christianity, Channeling, Tarot cards, reiki.

Spiritual Research Society, Edward Cain Grand Rapids, MI: New Age, Great White Brotherhood, Channeling, cosmic-consciousness.

Spiritual Science Institute Santa Barbara, CA: New Age, hypnotic future life progression, UFOs, Channeling, Esoteric teachings.

Spiritualism: A movement that began in the last half of the 1800's. A form of Spiritism normally associated with mediums or channelers who contact the spirits of the deceased. See "Necromancy," "Occult".

Spring Hill Institute, Robert Gass and Judith Gass Tierre:New Age, Inner Awareness.

Stallone Astrology Center, Jacqueline Stallone Toluca Lake, CA: Jacqueline Stallone is the mother of actor Sylvester Stallone. astrology.

Star Center for the Americas Montgomery, TX: New Age, God is everything, Divine light or Christ light, Meditation, Karma. See also "Church of the White Eagle Lodge."

Starlight Mystic Awareness School, Diane Tessman Poway, CA: New Age, Channeling life Forces, UFOs. Publishes The Star Netword Heartline newsletter.

Star Quest Argyle, TX: New Age, Visualization, Chakras, guided Meditation.

Starshine Center Corpus Christi, TX: New Age, Reiki, Astral Projection, past life regression, UFO.

Stelle Group, Richard Kieninger Stelle, IL: Become One with God, The Brotherhood is the Holy Spirit.

Steps to Awareness Telluride, CO: New Age, Yoga, Channeling, Crystals, voodoo, Rebirthing, Native American spirituality.

Sterling Management: Promotes Scientology philosophy through business management services aimed mostly at dentists, chiropractors, doctors, and veterinarians.

Stil-Light Retreat Center Waynesville, NC: New Age, Meditation, Buddhism, Christ-consciousness, Theosophy.

Stonehenge: Circular cluster of upright stones called menhirs (long stones) located in Salisbury Plain about 80 miles west of London, England. Various theories of its origins include the belief that ancient Druids built the site as a temple or that it was created by extraterrestrials. Some New Age followers, neo-pagans and others believe that the site has mystical powers or energy.

Students International Meditation Society: A branch of TM. See "Transcendental Meditation."

Subliminal Messages: Words or messages communicated at a level below the conscious mind's ability to perceive. Allegedly messages enter directly into the subconscious mind, thus by-passing the rational/logical center of the individual's brain.

Sufi Order of the Sons of the Green Light New York, NY: See "Sufism."

Sufism: Sect of Islam involving mysticism. Rather than focusing on the Five Pillars of Islam, Sufis seek ultimate religious experience through mystic trances or altered states often induced through twirling dances or "whirling dervish." Although the Koran is considered scripture, many practitioners have more in common with the New Age Movement than classic forms of Islam. See "Altered States of Consciousness."

Summit Lighthouse: See "Church Universal and Triumphant."

Summit University: See "Church Universal and Triumphant."

Summum Salt Lake City, UT: New Age, UFO, ascended consciousness, mummification.

The Sun Chapel Hill, NC: New Age periodical.

Sundoor, Peggy Dylan Twain Harte, CA: New Age, self realization, Native American spirituality, firewalking.

Superet Brotherhood for mankind, Josephine C. Trust Los Angeles, CA: New Age, Father-Mother God, aura, Bible Mysteries.

Supersensonic Energy Technologies Boulder Creek, CA: New Age health, Crystals, God is a force, Pyramidology.

Sutphen, Dick: See "Master of Life."

Sweat Lodge: Native American spiritual ritual associated with spiritual purification ceremonies and rites.

Swedenborg Foundation, Emanuel Swedenborg New York, NY: Denies Trinity, rejects many books of the Bible. Swedenborg a geologist and scientist who left his Lutheran background to become a medium and mystic. He wrote Arcana Coelestia: The Earths in the Universe. Latter day prophet, Spiritism, automatic writing. See "Occult," "Magic".

SYDA: See "Siddha Yoga Dham of America."

Synchronicity Foundation Faber, VA: New Age, Hatha Yoga, Meditation.


Taff, Signe Quinn Sedona, AZ: New Age, astrology.

Taj Mahal Agra, India: A 17th century mausoleum considered to be a holy building by some, including New Agers.

Talisman: Small stones or amulets believed to posses power in themselves. Guard against evil spirits or used in the invocation of demons by sorcerers. Also an ancient Occult belief that certain objects or symbols contain supernatural magical powers, used for attraction of love, health, success and power to control nature or others. Closely aligned with Witchcraft and Magic. See "Occult," "Magic."

Tao Te Ching: See "Taoism."
Tao Tsang: See "Taoism."

Taoism, Lao-tzu: Chinese philosophy teaching that there is no personal God - all is the impersonal Tao (similar to impersonal God-force of Hindu pantheism). The Tao is composed of conflicting opposites (Yin and Yang) which should be balanced or harmonized through Yoga, Meditation, etc. to promote spiritual wholeness. According to legend, Taoism founder Lao-tzu wrote Tao Te Ching ("The Way and Its Power") about 550 BC. His teaching was developed and spread in the third century B.C. by Chuang-Tzu whose writings inspired the Tao Tsang, 1200 volumes of Taoist scripture. See "Yin and Yang."

Tara Center, Benjamin Creme North Hollywood, CA: New Age, Maitreya is Jesus returned, Christ-consciousness. Publishes The Emergence newsletter and Share International magazine.

Tarot Cards: Occult, used for divining the future. See "Divination."

Teachers of Light: See "Church of E Yada di Shi-ite."

Technicians of the Sacred Burbank, CA: Occult, Santeria, voodoo, Magic, gnosticism.

Temple of Danann, Michael Ragan Hanover, IN: Pagan/Occult, Magic, Wicca, astrology.

Temple of Kriya Yoga, Goswami Kriyananda Chicago, IL: New Age, Rebirthing, Karma, astrology, Astral Projection. See "Yoga."

Temple of Set, Michael Aquino: Satanism, Egyptian rituals, Magic.

Temple of the Ascended Master, Ted M. Pierce Yarness, AZ: New Age, Channeling, God within, Karma erasing.

Temple of the People, William Dower Halcyon, CT: Mixture of I AM and theosophical philosophy.

Temple of the Psychedelic Light and the Church of the Realized Fantasy, Daniel Rakowitz East Village, NY: Satanism, human sacrifice, cannabilism.

Temple of the Universe, Amrit Desai Alachua, FL: Eastern mysticism, Yoga, guided Meditation.

Temple of Truth: See "Light of Truth Church."

Teresa, Joan Power Products Mars Hill, NC: Occult, Magic, astrology, voodoo, Witchcraft. Publishes an annual catalog.

Teutonic Temple, Clarence Bartholomew The Dallas, OR: Occult, sacred feasts, paganism.

Texas Wholistic Network Azel, TX: Christ-consciousness, higher self. Publishes the Lightworker newspaper.

Therapeutic Touch: See "Touch Therapy."

Theosophical Society in America, Helena Blavatsky Wheaton, IL: Occult, pantheism, man strives for Christ-consciousness, Reincarnation. See "Theosophy."

Theosophical Society - International Pasadena, CA: Similar theology as Theosophical Society in America. See "Theosophy."

Theosophy, Madame Helena Petrovna Blavatsky: (Literally "God wisdom") Founded in 1875 to form a universal brotherhood of humanity. Teaches pantheism, Reincarnation, Occult and paranormal phenomena. Important early leaders include Colonel Henry Steel Olcott, William Quan Judge and Annie Besant. Important texts include Isis Unveiled, The Secret Doctrine, and The Golden Book of the Theosophical Society. Similar and/or related to the Arcane School, the I AM Movement, the Liberal Catholic Church and Rosicrucianism.

Theosophy Company Los Angeles, CA: See "United Lodge of Theosophists." See "Theosophy."

Third Eye: Highest chakra supposedly found in the middle of the forehead.

Thought Reform: See “Mind Control,” “Brainwashing,” "Lifton, Robert.”

Thought Trends Roswell, GA:New Age newspaper.

Tibetan Buddhism: (Lamaism) A blending of Buddhism with the Occultism of Tibet which developed in the 7th century A.D. Lamas (priests) are perpetually led by the Dalai Lama who is worshipped as the most recent incarnation of Bodhisattva Chenresi. See "Buddhism," "Buddha," "Reincarnation."

TM: See "Transcendental Meditation."

Torres, Penny: New Age, allegedly channels the spirit entity Mafu. See "Channeling," "Ascended Masters."

Touch for Health: See "Touch Therapy"

Touch Stone San Francisco, CA: Occult/pagan periodical, Wicca, runes.

Touch Therapy: (Therapeutic Touch) New Age practice developed by Dolores Krieger and Dora Kunz of using alleged body energy to heal a patient. Therapists move their hands just above the surface of the patient, never actually touching the body. This process is said to release the body's natural Psychic energy thereby physically healing the body. Becoming very common in nursing schools and hospitals throughout America. Similar to reiki. See "Holistic Health," "Chi." Profile available.

Trance: An spontaneous or induced altered state of consciousness, similar to hypnosis, which is often employed by channelers and mediums. See "Altered States of Consciousness," "Hypnosis," "Medium," "Channeling".

Trance Channeling:See "Channeling."

Transcendental Meditation, Maharishi Mahesh Yogi: (TM) New Age, altered state of consciousness, Yoga, promises to expand creativity, self-awareness, and world peace. At the group's Maharishi University in Fairfield, IA, TM students attempt levitation through Meditation techniques. Profile available.

Transformational Seminars: New Age, stress management.

Tree of Knowledge Westchester, IL: New Age, astrology, higher consciousness, Tarot, past life regression, Fall moon Meditation. Publishes the Tree of Knowledge newsletter.

Trick or Treat: See "Halloween."

Trinity: A doctrine held historically by orthodox Christianity. The one true God eternally exists as three distinct Persons - the Father, Son and Holy Spirit. The three are co-equal, co-eternal, and one in essence. This doctrine contrasts with both Modalism and Tritheism.

Tritheism: The belief in three separate Gods. A denial of the Trinity doctrine. A form of Polytheism.

Triumph Prophetic Ministries Church of God, William Dankenbring Altadena, CA: Break-off of Worldwide Church of God. Publishes Prophecy Flash . See "Armstrongism."

Triumph Publishing: See "Triumph Prophetic Ministries Church of God."

True Mother and True Father: Titles of Rev. Sun Myung Moon and his wife. See "Holy Spirit Association of World Christianity."

Tucson Tabernacle Tucson, AZ: See "Branhamism."

Two by Twos: See "Cooneyites."

UFO: See "Unidentified Flying Object."


UG Farmingdale, NY: Eastern mysticism, Applied Kinesiology.

Unarius Academy of Science, Ruth Norman El Cajon, CA: UFO, Reincarnation, Psychic communication.

Unarius Education Foundation, Ernest Norman El Cajon, CA: UFO, Channeling. see "Unarius Academy of Science."

Understanding Inc., Daniel Fry Tonopah, AZ: UFO, Atlantis, ESP.

Unidentified Flying Objects (UFO): Flying Saucers or alien space crafts. UFO beliefs can range between innocuous speculation that extraterrestrial beings may have visited Earth to quasi-religious devotion to the alleged presence and teachings of aliens. Often these beings are believed to be non-physical (spiritual) entities who are communicating telepathically (psychically) with contactees. Their messages are virtually always contrary to biblical beliefs.Research material available.

Unification Church: See "Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of Christianity."

Unitarianism: The historic rejection of the doctrine of the Trinity in favor of the idea that God is exclusively one. Sometimes associated with a pantheistic view of God and/or the Unitarian-Universalist movement of 19th century New England. See "Monarchianism," "Trinity," "Unitarian-Universalist."

Unitarian-Universalist: An historical rejection of the Trinity doctrine (Unitarianism) in favor of Monarchianism (the concept that God is exclusively one) combined with universalism - the belief that all humanity will eventually receive eternal life. Elements of both beliefs have existed throughout Christian history but the term is usually associated with Unitarian influences in 18th century New England churches. In the 19th century the movement began to make a complete break with any association with Christianity. Today's Unitarian-Universalist churches exhibit an eclectic blend of humanism, Atheism, and neo-paganism. See "Unitarianism," "Universalism," "Trinity."

United Church of Jesus Christ: Denies the doctrine of the Trinity teaching "Jesus Only". See "Oneness Pentecostal," "Modalism," "Salvation by Works".

United Lodge of Theosophists New York, NY: See "Theosophy."

United Pentecostal: (Oneness Penticostal) Denies the doctrine of the Trinity, teaching "Jesus Only." See "Modalism."

United Pentecostal Church International: Denies the doctrine of the Trinity teaching "Jesus Only". Works required for salvation including baptism (in Jesus' name, only) and speaking in tongues. See "Oneness Pentecostal," "Modalism," "Salvation by Works".

United Research, James V. Goure Black Mountain, NC: New Age, Christ-consciousness, energy fields, Meditation, extra-dimensional communication. Publishes the U R Light newsletter.

Unitology Thought Indianapolis, IN: Meditation, Visualization.

Unity of Knowledge Foundation, Edith May Custard Arlington, VA: Mixture of Theosophy and the teachings of Alice Bailey.

Unity School of Christianity, Charles and Myrtle Fillmore Lee's Summit, MO: New Age. God is the invisible, intangible something called Life. The Father is Principle, Jesus was the most complete manifestation of the One Mind, the Holy Spirit is the activity of the God-Mind in the consciousness of man. Deny the reality of evil, pain, sickness and death. Profile available.

Unity Village: Unity School of Christianity headquarters in Lee's Summit, MO.

Universal Christian Movement Glencoe, IL: God is Power, use Mind Power for healing, All humans are God. Publishes The Christian Liberation newsletter.

Universal Faithists of Kosmon, George Morley:Occult, Karma, "at-one-ment" with the All Highest, Channeling. See "OAHSPE".

Universal Harmony Foundation Seminole, FL: Universalist, Practical Metaphysics, REALization, Deity-and-Man.

Universal Life Church, Kirby Hensley Medesto, CA: Every person has the right to do what they feel is right, subjective truth.

Universal Life Church of the Seven African Powers Miami, FL: Santeria, honor the god Ogun.

Universal Life Temple New Port, MI: New Age, Atlantis, aura, fifth dimensional consciousness, levitation, telepathy.

Universal Light of Christ Church, Pat RaimondoAzle, TX: Jesus appeared to her, latter day revelation, Christ-consciousness.

Universal Mother Mary's Garden, Mary Pacquette Grass Valley, CA: New Age, Channeling, Crystals, ascended masters.

Universal Network Aztec, NM: UFOs, space communiques, cosmic telepathy, spiritual hierarchy. Publishes Universal Network newsletter.

Universal Spiritualist Association Chesterfield, IN: Spiritualism, Occult, medium, Reflexology, ritual Magic, divine within.

Universal Temple of Divine Light, Don Slocum Baton Rouge, LA: New Age, spirit entities, Reincarnation, All is God, Satan and Evil are illusions.

Universalism: The belief that all people will eventually receive eternal life. Many different groups hold to universalism from various perspectives and for diverse (and sometimes opposing) reasons. This doctrine can be found among liberal Protestants and Catholics, the New Age, and most non-monotheistic world religions. See "Liberal Christianity," "Gospel."

Universariun Foundation, Inc. Portland, OR: New Age, ascended masters, Channeling.

University of the Christ Light Charlotte, NC: New Age, inner states of consciousness, man is the essence of God, Jesus was an Essene, Universal Mother.

University of the Trees, Christopher Hill Boulder Creek, CA: New Age, Meditation for children, balancing energies, Yoga.

University of the 12 Rays of the Great Central Sun: See "University of the Christ Light."

Upanishads: One of the books considered to be scripture by Hindus. See "Hinduism."

Upper Triad Manassas, VA: New Age, pantheism, Karma, many paths to God, astral body. Publishes The Upper Triad newsletter.

The URANTIA Book: Written in 1955, this 2,097 page book reflects a 19th century psychically inspired gospel. Allegedly, Earth's true nae is Urantia which is part of the universe of Nebadon (itself part of the larger universe of Orvonton) ruled by a committee. The Nebadon commission of tweleve acting under the direction of Mantutia Melchizedek supposedly delivered portions of the book to earth. Several organizations view the book as scripture. See "New Age," "Ascended Masters," "Spiritualism". Profile available.

URANTIA Brotherhood Chicago, IL: Established in 1955 and reorganized in 1989 after a corporate shakeup. See "Fifth Epochal Fellowship."

URANTIA Foundation Chicago, IL: Established in 1950. Holds the copyright on The URANTIA Book. New Age, automatic writing, ascended beings. See The URANTIA Book.

Urshan, Andrew: An early, well-known "Jesus Only" writer and speaker. See "Oneness Pentecostal".


Vedas: A compilation of four holy writings forming the oldest of Hindu sacred scriptures. See "Hinduism."

Verse 1 of Psalms 91 Marvel, TX: See "Church of the Most High God."

Virgin Birth: The belief that when Jesus was born of Mary she was a virgin and that Jesus was conceived of the Holy Spirit. (Matthew 1:18-25).

Vishnu:The preserver and second member of the triad of Hindu demigods-gods including Brahma and Shiva. See "Hinduism."

Vision Quest: Native American spiritual ceremony involving out-of-body experiences, also called the Way of Inner Journey. See "Astral Projection."

Visions Travel Los Angeles, CA: New Age, Crystals, Dowsing, Visualization, spiritual energies.

Visualization: New Age practice of using one's imagination to allegedly affect or manipulate reality. meditating on, affirmation of, or "naming" of an object or goal which supposedly creates the desired effect through "mind over matter." See "Maya."

Voice of Reality Phoenix, AZ: New Age newspaper.

Voice of the Olive Tree, Inc., Bernard Harland Monrovia, CA: Latter day prophet, Jesus' second coming was predicted for 1986.

Voodoo: African religion, animal sacrifice, chants and incantations.

Vorilhon, Claude: (Rael) See “The Raelian Religion.”


Waldorf Schools: Based on the Occult and Esoteric teachings of Rudolf Steiner.

Warren Bible Students: See "Bible Students."

Watchman Nee: Evangelical Christian writer whose house church movement in China later generated controversy under the new leadership of Witness Lee in the United States. See "The Local Church."

Watchtower: See "Watchtower Bible and Tract Society."

Watchtower Bible and Tract Society, Charles Taze Russell Brooklyn, NY: Satan is the originator of the idea of the Trinity. The Father is the supreme God whose real name is Jehovah. Jesus is a created being known originally as Michael the Archangel. Jesus only rose spiritually, not bodily, from the dead. The Holy Spirit is the impersonal active force of God. Only 144,000 will go to heaven, faithful "other sheep" will live eternally on a paradise earth, the lost will cease to exist (annihilationism). Publishes the Watchtower and Awake! magazines, the New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures (their own version of the Bible), as well as numerous books. Originally called International Bible Students, followers today are called Jehovah's Witnesses. Research material available. Profile available.

The Way Corps: See "The Way International."

The Way International, Victor Paul Wierwille New Knoxville, OH: Jesus is not co-equal with God the Father, Unitarian doctrine of God, latter-day verbal call from God to reestablish the true church. The group meets in small groups called Twigs, usually in members' homes. Main recruitment course is the Way of Abundance and Power, which replaced the old Power for Abundant Living. The American Christian Press is their publishing arm. Their annual concert/convention, the Rock of Ages, has been discontinued. Current leader is Craig Martindale. The Way has experienced several splits in recent years. Profile available.

Weil, Andrew: A medical doctor who helped popularize New Age alternative medicine in his book Spontaneous Healing.

Western Nath Order Seattle, WA: Paganism, Magic, guardian spirits, Inner being of Supreme light.

Whirling Dervish: See "Sufism."

White Dove International, Stuart Wilde Taos, NM: New Age, human potential, higher self, stress reduction seminars, trance,.

White Dove Partridge: See "Mon-Ka Retreat..."

White Eagle: See "Star Center for the Americas."

White, Ellen G.: See "Seventh-day Adventist Church".

White, Walter: See “Followers of Christ Church.”

Whitelights Westlake Village, CA: New Age, Channeling, Goddess Ashtoar and Athena, astral planes.

Whitney, Michael:  See “American Temple.”

Whittaker, Terry Cole: See "Cole-Whittaker, Terry."

Whole Life Network Santa Cruz, CA: New Age, Psychic, Visualization, shamanism, Rebirthing. Publishes the Whole Life Network quarterly.

Wholistic Innerworks Foundation, Randy Barns Durango, CO: New Age, Therapeutic Touch, Reflexology, reiki, Crystals, medicine women.

Wicca: Occult/witchcraft, nature worship, female Goddess, paganism and neo-paganism, various groups throughout the U.S with assorted names. Profile available.

Wise Woman Center, Susun Weed Woodstock, NY: Pagan, goddess worship, Equinox and Halloween festivals.

Witness Lee: See "The Local Church."

Wikima Arlington, TX: Occult, paganism, Crystals ball readings, spirit guides, shamanism.

Wilde, Stuart: Prominent New Age author and lecturer.

Williamson, Marianne: Prominent New Age author and speaker. Wrote the book, A Return To Love and Illuminata. See "A Course in Miracles" for underlying theology.

Willow Keep Wilton, NH: Paganism, talismans, Crystals, Magic, Goddess quest.

Windsong Explorations, Bonnie Simrell Nederland, CO: Native American spirituality, Mother Earth, Therapeutic Touch, chakra balancing.

Wisdom Institute of Spiritual Education Dallas, TX: New Age, God-within.

WISE International Los Angeles, CA: (Worldwide Institute of Scientology Enterprises). Promotes Scientology.

Wise Woman Center, Susan Weed Woodstock, NY: Pagan, Goddess worship, Equinox and Halloween festivals.

Witchcraft: See "Wicca."

W.J. Publishers, Brother Stanley Toronto, Ontario: New Age, Cosmic-Psychic Treatment, Egyptian rituals.

Woman's Circle El Prado, NM: New Age, shamanistic journeys, Visualization, Native American medicine bags.

Women's Federation for World Peace, Hak Ja Han Moon New York, NY: Connection with the Unification Church of Rev. Moon.

Womyn Healing, Sandra Boston de Sylvia Greenfield, MA: Paganism, guided Meditation, visions, Gaia festivals.

Word-Faith Movement: The belief that Christians have within themselves the supernatural power to create reality by speaking the word. This movement, sometimes called “name it and claim it,” is often presented as an answer to the lack of life and miracles in some Christian churches. In its fully developed form, however, it differs from traditional Christian views of faith and miracles in several important ways. According to some teachers, the believer’s faith itself (independent of God’s direct action or will) contains the power to bring desired results — usually pertaining to health and financial prosperity. In more extreme forms, believers are seen to be “little gods” or divine beings that possess all or some of the distinctive attributes of God. In contrast, traditional Christian theology teaches that God is uniquely different from humans who are limited and finite. Historically, Christians have viewed the potential and/or presence of supernatural health, wealth, and miracles as very real and valid aspects of Christian life. They are viewed, however, as answers to prayer and acts of God contingent on His sovereign will. Profile available.

Word Over the World:(WOW) See "The Way International."

World Community, J.E. Rash Bedford, VI: New Age, mystic, teaches the "five ancient Orders."

World Council of Churches: An international agency of promoting the interfaith dialogue and ecumenical cooperation among churches. Most participants are mainline, liberal denominations. See “Liberal Christianity.”

The World Tomorrow: The now defunct radio/television broadcast begun by Herbert Armstrong. See "Armstrongism."

Worldwide Church of God, Herbert W. Armstrong Pasadena, CA: (Armstrongism, WCG) Under the leadership of its founder, Herbert W. Armstrong, this church rejected the essential doctrines of evangelical Christianity denying the doctrine of the Trinity, the full deity of Jesus and the personality of the Holy Spirit. The church epitomized the somewhat eclectic set of beliefs and practices that became known as Armstrongism. Beginning in the early 1990s under the leader of Armstrong's successors, Joseph W. Tkach and his son Joe Tkach, this group has undergone a remarkable transformation. They now hold to a traditional evangelical position on the nature of God and the Gospel teaching the Trinity doctrine and salvation by grace alone through faith alone. A large percentage of its membership has left to join splinter groups that still teach classic "Armstrongism." Publishes Plain Truth magazine. See "Armstrongism." Research material available. Profile available.

Worrall, Olda: See "New Life Clinic".

WOW: (Word Over the World). See "The Way International."



Yahweh ben Yahweh: See "Nation of Yahweh."

Yahwehism: Sacred name, must keep Sabbath, Old Testament dietary laws and Feast Days; also believes God's true name must be known. Various groups across the U.S. with assorted names. See "Sacred Name."

Yahweh's Assembly in Messiah, David Barnard Rockport, MO: Publishes The Master Key, Unlocking Bible Truth magazine. See "Yahwehism."

Yang: See "Yin and Yang."

Yes Education Society Washington, D.C.: New Age, Yoga, palm reading, astrology, iridology.

Yi King: See "I Ching."

Yin and Yang: New Age concept borrowed from Taoism holding that the universe consists of two opposite energy forces (positive/negative; male/female, etc.). Both are necessary and both must be harmonized for proper function . This Yin and Yang also flow through the human body so that a balance is required to maintain health. Many New Age medical techniques are based on attempts to balance this alleged energy or chi. When all is balanced, the Yin and Yang harmonize and the body works properly. See "Taoism," "Chi," "Acupuncture," "Holistic Health."

Yoga: Exercises (physical, mental or spiritual) based on eastern metaphysical assumptions designed to aid in enlightenment or self realization. Goals sometimes include Altered States of Consciousness or uniting the practitioner with the impersonal pantheistic God. Types of Yoga include Karma Yoga (spiritual union through correct conduct), Bhakti Yoga (spiritual union through devotion to a guru), Juana Yoga (spiritual union through hidden knowledge), Raja Yoga (spiritual union through mental control), Hatha Yoga (spiritual union through body control/Meditation), Kundalini Yoga (spiritual union through focusing inner energy) and Tantra Yoga (spiritual union through sexual practices). Yoga philosophy is based on the concept of Reincarnation, the Upanishads and other Hindu scripture.

Yoga Journal Berkley, CA: New Age periodical. See "Yoga."

Yoga Research Foundation, Jyotir Maya Nanda Miami, FL: Yoga, eastern mysticism. Publishes International Yoga Guide magazine. See "Yoga."

Yoga Research Society Phildelphia, PA: Eastern mysticism, Yoga, Meditation, alternative healing practices. Publishes the Yoga Research newsletter. See "Yoga."

York, Malachi Z. See “Ancient Mystic Order of Malchizedek.”

Yogi: A teacher or master of Yoga. See "Yoga."


Zen Buddhism: A branch of Mahayana Buddhism believed to have originated in India from the teachings of a Buddhism master, Bodhidharma, about 600 B.C. Practitioners seek satori (sudden illumination enabling bliss and harmony) which cannot be explained but only experienced. Techniques include zazen (sitting Meditation techniques) and koans, which are short riddles or sayings. The koans (which number about 1,700) are not designed to have cognitive answer but to promote the experience of Zen. See "Buddha," "Buddhism."

Zen Master Rama, a.k.a. Frederick P. Lenz:Occult, Ancient Egyptian rituals, Meditation, Atlantis. See "Zen Buddhism."

Zendik Farm, Wulf Aendik Boulveard, CA: Paganism, cosmic connection, Psychic realm.

Zentech, Don Mead Surry, ME: New Age, Meditation, dreamwaves.

Zerubbabel, Inc. Hopkinsville, KY: God is All, man is Christ in true essence. Publishes The Intercessor newsletter.

Zodiac: See "Astrology."

Zohar: See "Kabbalah".

Zolar: See "Kabbalah".

Zoroastrianism, Zoroaster: Religion thought to be founded about 600 BC in Persia (present day Iran). According to legend, Zoroaster received enlightenment by the Daitya river when, at age 30, he received a vision of Vohu Manah ("Good Thought") who took him into the presence of lord Ahura-Mazda. Lord Mazda taught Zoroaster the "true religion" rejecting Magic and idol worship and promoting the belief in heaven, hell, a devil (Angra-Mainyu) and one true god. Later followers, however, worshipped Zoroaster in addition to Mazda. Good Lord Mazda and evil Angra Mainyu are seen as equal in power. Salvation and enlightenment is based on good works, fire worship, and partaking of the hallucinogenic, haoma (soma in India). See "Salvation by Works," "Altered States of Consciousness."

Zwaan Rays: See "Spirit Electronic Communication Society".

Zygon International, Dane Spotts Issaquah, WA: New Age, inner power, ESP, Meditation,fifth state of consciousness.

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